Kidney and Nephron

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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the kidneys are the major organs of the excretory system, and they're heavily involved in Osma regulation. They actually have two layers. This outer layer we call the cortex and an inner layer known as the medulla. And it's this inner layer that's going to be the saltiest layer. Uh, and the kidney is basically mostly made up of these functional units called neh Franz. And these are tube structures that transport Phil Trait, which we'll talk about more in a moment. Uh, and these tube structure is gonna be surrounded by blood vessels now, net. Franz, they're gonna use, uh, the active transport of salutes to create salty environments that will help these, uh, net Franz and the kidneys re absorb lots of water from the fill trade. And as I said, there are two layers to the kidney. You have the cortex, which is the outer layer, and the medulla, which is the inner layer. And you actually will see two types of neh Franz Uh, in kidneys, you'll have what are called cortical neh Franz like cortex. And these are the most common type of Neff, Ron, and basically, uh, the tubules of these neh Franz just don't extend that deeply into the medulla. See, here's the boundary between the cortex and the medulla. Here is a nef, Ron. Jump out of the way and you can see that this Neff Ron Onley extends a little bit into the medulla. Whereas this other Neff Ron is a just imagine Loring Neff Ron, which is mostly responsible for maintaining that osmotic Grady in for re absorption. So, uh, the cortical net Franz are there to you know, uh, filter the filter it and create urine and re absorbed lots of stuff. The just image Larry Net Net Franz are not as common because their job is more of a support role. They're just there to make sure that this area stays super, super salty. And that's why they extend very deeply into the medulla as opposed to the shallow extension of the cortical neh, Franz. And hopefully you can see in this image that we're basically over here. We're looking at like a slice of this it almost as if you took, you know, a chunk out like that and zoomed in. That's what you'd see. And hopefully you can also see just how riddled with blood vessels the kidney is it's super infused with blood vessels and you'll see why momentarily, this is so important. So with that, let's actually go ahead and flip the page.