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Animation: Fermentation

by Pearson
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All cells are able to synthesize ATP via the process of glycolysis. In many cells, if oxygen is not present, pyruvate (pyruvic acid) is metabolized in a process called “fermentation.” By oxidizing the NADH produced in glycolysis, fermentation regenerates NAD+, which can take part in glycolysis once again to produce more ATP. The net energy gain in fermentation is two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose. Fermentation complements glycolysis and makes it possible for ATP to be continually produced in the absence of oxygen. Two common types of fermentation are described here. Alcohol fermentation, which occurs in yeast, results in the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide. Lactic acid fermentation, which occurs in muscle, results in the production of lactate (lactic acid). Let’s see the relationship between glycolysis and alcohol fermentation. Glycolysis produces NADH, ATP, and pyruvate (pyruvic acid). If oxygen is not present, NADH cannot be oxidized in the electron transport chain. Without fermentation, the cell would run out of NAD+, bringing glycolysis to a halt. In alcohol fermentation, the pyruvate (pyruvic acid) from glycolysis loses one carbon in the form of carbon dioxide and the product is then reduced to ethanol by NADH. With the formation of ethanol, NADH is oxidized and becomes NAD+. With a continuous supply of NAD+, glycolysis can continue, producing more ATP. During fermentation, the NADH produced by glycolysis is oxidized, ensuring a continuous supply of NAD+ for glycolysis. Alcohol fermentation occurs in yeast cells. Let’s observe the relationship between glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. Glycolysis produces NADH, ATP, and pyruvate (pyruvic acid). If oxygen is not present, NADH cannot be oxidized in the electron transport chain. Without fermentation, the cell would run out of NAD+, bringing glycolysis to a halt. In lactic acid fermentation, the pyruvate (pyruvic acid) from glycolysis is reduced to lactate (lactic acid) by NADH. With the formation of lactate (lactic acid), NADH is oxidized and becomes NAD+. With a continuous supply of NAD+, glycolysis can continue producing more ATP. During fermentation, the NADH produced by glycolysis is oxidized, ensuring a continuous supply of NAD+ for glycolysis. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.
All cells are able to synthesize ATP via the process of glycolysis. In many cells, if oxygen is not present, pyruvate (pyruvic acid) is metabolized in a process called “fermentation.” By oxidizing the NADH produced in glycolysis, fermentation regenerates NAD+, which can take part in glycolysis once again to produce more ATP. The net energy gain in fermentation is two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose. Fermentation complements glycolysis and makes it possible for ATP to be continually produced in the absence of oxygen. Two common types of fermentation are described here. Alcohol fermentation, which occurs in yeast, results in the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide. Lactic acid fermentation, which occurs in muscle, results in the production of lactate (lactic acid). Let’s see the relationship between glycolysis and alcohol fermentation. Glycolysis produces NADH, ATP, and pyruvate (pyruvic acid). If oxygen is not present, NADH cannot be oxidized in the electron transport chain. Without fermentation, the cell would run out of NAD+, bringing glycolysis to a halt. In alcohol fermentation, the pyruvate (pyruvic acid) from glycolysis loses one carbon in the form of carbon dioxide and the product is then reduced to ethanol by NADH. With the formation of ethanol, NADH is oxidized and becomes NAD+. With a continuous supply of NAD+, glycolysis can continue, producing more ATP. During fermentation, the NADH produced by glycolysis is oxidized, ensuring a continuous supply of NAD+ for glycolysis. Alcohol fermentation occurs in yeast cells. Let’s observe the relationship between glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. Glycolysis produces NADH, ATP, and pyruvate (pyruvic acid). If oxygen is not present, NADH cannot be oxidized in the electron transport chain. Without fermentation, the cell would run out of NAD+, bringing glycolysis to a halt. In lactic acid fermentation, the pyruvate (pyruvic acid) from glycolysis is reduced to lactate (lactic acid) by NADH. With the formation of lactate (lactic acid), NADH is oxidized and becomes NAD+. With a continuous supply of NAD+, glycolysis can continue producing more ATP. During fermentation, the NADH produced by glycolysis is oxidized, ensuring a continuous supply of NAD+ for glycolysis. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.