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Animation: Cytoplasmic Response: Glycogen Breakdown

by Pearson
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Here’s an example of how a signal transduction pathway can produce a response in the cytoplasm of cells. The fight-or-flight hormone, epinephrine, is released from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream when a threat is perceived. Epinephrine binds to G protein-coupled receptors on liver cells, triggering a signal transduction pathway in the cytoplasm: a G protein is activated, which activates adenylyl cyclase, which converts ATP to cyclic AMP. The second messenger cyclic AMP activates a series of two protein kinases, and the final kinase activates the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. This enzyme cleaves glycogen molecules, releasing glucose monomers that enter the bloodstream. These sugar molecules provide quick energy for fighting or fleeing from the threat.
Here’s an example of how a signal transduction pathway can produce a response in the cytoplasm of cells. The fight-or-flight hormone, epinephrine, is released from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream when a threat is perceived. Epinephrine binds to G protein-coupled receptors on liver cells, triggering a signal transduction pathway in the cytoplasm: a G protein is activated, which activates adenylyl cyclase, which converts ATP to cyclic AMP. The second messenger cyclic AMP activates a series of two protein kinases, and the final kinase activates the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. This enzyme cleaves glycogen molecules, releasing glucose monomers that enter the bloodstream. These sugar molecules provide quick energy for fighting or fleeing from the threat.