Introduction to Types of RNA

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to types of RNA. Now it's important to note that all life uses several types of RNA molecules that differ from each other in their functions. And so this includes the following three types of RNA that we have number down below 12 and three. And, of course, the numbers here correspond with numbers that you see down below in the image 12 and three. Now, the first type of RNA that you should all know about is messenger RNA, otherwise abbreviated as just m. Arna and so messenger RNA or mRNA, as its name implies, is going to act as a messenger carrying DNA encoded information and the messenger RNA. Its function is to serve as a template for translation to build a protein, and so messenger RNA is going to be translated tau protein. Unlike these other types of RNA that we see down below now, the messenger RNA or the Marna contains what are known as co dons and co dons are three nucleotides that are going to be coding for a specific amino acid. And so we'll learn more about these code on as we move along through our course as specifically when we talk about the genetic code. Now the second type of RNA that you should all know about is Ribas, Omo, Arna and right back Zouma. Arna is abbreviated as just our Arna where the lower case are here represents the Ribas OEM apart and so repose Omo Arna, or are Arna differs from messenger RNA in that Rebozo Marna is not going to be translated into a protein instead, Ribas, Omo, Arna or RNA has a structural function because it forms part of the structure of ribosomes. And that's why it's called Ribas. Omo, Arna. Now these Riva zones are going to be very important for translation, which again we'll talk about translation later in our course now, the third type of RNA that you should all know about are the transfer RNA molecules and transfer RNA is abbreviated as just t Arna where again the lower case T here represents the tea and transfer, and so transfer RNA, or tiara again differs from the messenger RNA in that the transfer RNA or tiara, is not going to be translated into a protein. Instead, the transfer RNAs role is to carry amino acids to the ribs, um, during translation. And so the tiara is going to be able to bind to amino acids and carry them for the rival zone. And we'll talk more about the riot zone and translation as we move forward in our course now. Also, unlike the Marianas, which contained code ons, T. Arnas contain anti Cody Johns and antique. Oden's are also three nucleotide sequences. But these, uh, antique Oden are going to be complementary to the Marna Cody Johns. And so again, we'll talk Maura about the process of translation and how the antique Oden's on the T r n a pair with the cotton's in the Marne A later in our course, in a different video when we talk more about translation. But for now, if we take a look at our image down below, we could get a better feel for the difference between these three major types of RNA. So we have the types of RNA at the top, and there are three major types. The first major type is the messenger RNA or the M R N A, which is our standard Arna that we've been talking about in our previous lesson video so far, Uh then what we have is Ribas, Omo, Arna which is still Arna. But it has a different function. The Ribs O Mara is not going to be translated into a protein like the messenger RNA is instead the ribs O Mara is gonna fold up on itself and become part of the structure of the Riva Zone. And so here we're showing you right bas omo RNA or are RNA and so you can see here the ribs. Omo Arna is represented here and down here as well. And the entire blue structure Teela structure that you see here represents the rib is, um which is the primary structure that's responsible for translation, which we'll talk about later in our course. Now, the third and final major type of RNA that we're going to introduce here is the transfer RNA and the transfer RNA here is represented as this little square, uh, rectangular shaped box here and the transfer RNA or the T Arna. Uh, it actually has a structure that looks like this where it folds up on itself, and at some point which will notice is that these t Arnas they bind specifically to amino acids. And so the amino acid recall is the monomer, or the building block of a protein. And so the amino acids are going to be carried to the Riva Zone by these T Arna molecules. And so if you zoom into the structure of the tiara again, you can see over here that it is just ah, single strand of RNA. That kind of folds up onto itself to create this complex structure. And again, it can be bound to amino acids and bring amino acids to the ribs. Um, during translation. Now again, it's important to note that the T Arna has anti code ons, so the anti code and are found on the T RNA. And it's the messenger RNA or the Marna, which we brought over here, Uh, in this image, it's the messenger RNA that actually contains the code on themselves, which are again, uh, katanas are going to be three nucleotide sequences. Uh, the code ions are found in the Marna. The antique Oden's are found on the tiara and they are complementary to each other. And so this complementarity here is going to be very important when we start to talk about translation later in our course. But for now, this here concludes our brief introduction to the types of RNA, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts and continue to learn mawr about these types of RNA as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video.