Thermodynamics: System vs. Surroundings

by Jason Amores Sumpter
268 views
6
Was this helpful ?
6
in this video, we're going to introduce thermodynamics and distinguish between the system and the surroundings. And so thermodynamics is the study of energy transfers between different bodies of matter. And so it's really important in the study of thermodynamics to distinguish between the system and the surroundings. And so the system is going to be defined as the specific portion of matter that's being studied. And so depending on the scenario, the system can change pretty drastically. And some scenarios thesis TEM will be an entire living organism. And another scenarios. The system will be just a single specific reaction, and so the system will really just be any specific portion of matter that's going to be the main focus of the study. And then, of course, the surroundings are pretty much just going to be the surroundings that revolve or surround the system. So pretty much everything else that's on the outside of the system will be part of the surroundings. Now. Biological systems are very, very interesting because they actually transfer both energy and mess with the surroundings. And so let's take a look at our image down below to clear up this idea, and so notice that in this particular scenario, the biological system is this plant that we have here in the middle, and so notice that the biological system this plant is capable of allowing energy to enter the system. But it's also capable of allowing mass to enter the system. And so you can see that the solar energy here from the sun is capable of entering the biological system entering into the plant, but also components that have mass uh, that, such as, for instance, carbon dioxide gas and water molecules are also capable of entering the biological system, but also on the other end. Over here, it's important to note that not only can energy and mass enter the system, but they can also exit the system as well. And so you can see that energy is capable of entering the system. But then also exiting the system in a different form and mass is also capable of entering the system but also exiting the system in a different form. And so what you'll notice here is that this biological system is a plant and it's capable of performing photosynthesis, and that's really what we're showing you here on this page. we'll get to talk. Ah, lot more about photosynthesis later in our course as we move forward. But basically what you can see here is solar energy is capable of entering Mass, such as carbon dioxide and water are capable of entering the biological system. And then what ends up coming out of the biological system is glucose, which is a sugar. And it is the most abundant sugar that exists and recall from our last lesson video that glucose is a common form of chemical potential energy because all of these bombs that air form in glucose contained chemical potential energy. So it's a form of energy that's exiting the system here and then. Also, oxygen gas is a form of mass that's exiting the system. And so really, the main take away here is that biological systems are capable of allowing energy and mass to enter the system. But also energy and mass can also exit the system in different forms. And so this year concludes our introduction to thermodynamics and the distinguishing between the system and the surroundings, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video