Osmosis

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to introduce osmosis. And so osmosis is a type of passive diffusion, which means that absolutely no energy is required for osmosis to occur now, as Moses is defined as the passive diffusion of a solvent across a semi permeable membrane now recall that solvents are substances that dissolve other substances and usually in biology. The solvent is going to be water, and so really, we can define osmosis as the passive diffusion of water across a semi permeable membrane such as ah, biological membrane or a cell membrane. Now, really, the direction that water will flow across that semi permeable membrane or biological membrane will depend on the tennis ity of the solution. And so the tennis ITI is defined as the relative concentration of salute dissolved in the solutions. And when it comes to tennis ity, really, there are three terms that you all should know, and we have these three terms down below and which will notice about all three of these terms is that they all end in tonic and tonic is just referring to the tennis ity. And so what you'll notice is the difference between these three terms is going to be the prefix that comes right before. And so that's why we have the prefix as interactive. And so the first term that you all need to know When it comes to tennis, ITI is the term Hypo Tonic Now. Hypo is a prefix that means low, and it even rhymes with low hypo low. And so Hypo Tonic Solutions are going to have lower Salyut concentrations. Now the second term that you all should know is isso tonic and ISO is a prefix that means equal and so isotonic solutions are going to have an equal Salyut concentration and the third and final term that you need to know when it comes to tennis. ITI is hyper tonic solution and hyper kind of sounds like hypo, but hypo round rhymes with low but hyper does not rhyme with low, so hyper is actually going to mean higher saw you concentrations. And so what you'll notice is that lower, equal and higher are all words of comparison. Something can't be lower unless it's lower than something else. Something can't be equal unless it's equal to something else, and something can't be higher unless it's higher than something else. and so essentially, what we're saying is that lower, equal and higher are words of comparison. You need to be comparing at least two regions and the same goes with hypo ISO and hyper tonic. You need to be using these words when you're comparing two regions. Now, the two regions that were typically going to be comparing are the inside of the cell. That's region number one and the second region that will be comparing. Is the region on the outside of the cell or the surrounding solution outside of the cell so down below? In our example, notice that it's asking us to label the tennis city of the outside solution on the outside of the cell with respect to the solution on the inside of the cell. So we need to be comparing the outside solution on the outside of the cell with the inside of the cell, which would be over here, and we'll be doing that in each of these three scenarios down below. So when we take a look at this first scenario over here on the left hand side, notice that there are these green salutes and there are only two green salutes on the outside, whereas on the inside there's a much higher concentration of these grain salutes. And so because the outside has a lower saw you concentration than the inside, we can label the outside solution. We're labeling the outside solution here and the outside is lower, so it's going to be Hypo Tonic. The outside solution will be hypo tonic because it has a lower solute concentration than the inside of the cell, which has a higher solute concentration. Remember the salutes Here are the green circles. Now moving on to this scenario here in the middle again, we're gonna be labeling the outside solution. And what you'll notice is that the outside solution has a concentration that's pretty much equal to the concentration of solid on the inside. And so because the outside solution and inside solution have equal saw you concentrations, that means that the outside solution will be isotonic with respect to the inside. So in here in the middle, we can label this as ISO tonic. Thea outside is isotonic with respect to the inside and then notice over here and the final, uh, image over here on the right hand side. Once again, we're labeling the outside solution and noticed that the outside solution has a much higher concentration than the inside. And so that means that the outside, because it's higher, it's going to be hyper tonic. And so we can label the outside solution hyper tonic here, and that will be the outside solution once again because it has a higher concentration of solute than the inside. And so now what we can do now that we've labeled the outside solution with all three of these terms and remember the outside solution is gonna be here in all three cases, we can now try to label the inside solutions for each of these. And so when you take a look at the inside of these, notice that the inside here has a higher concentration with respect to the outside, which has a lower concentration. So the inside of the cell here because it has a higher consul, you concentration. It's going to be hyper tonic so we can label the inside here as hyper. I'm just gonna put hyper here just to save some space, but it would be hyper tonic eso Now let's label the inside over here. Well, the inside here has an equal saw you concentration with respect to the outside. So that means that the inside is also going to be isotonic. But I'll just put ISO here just for short. And then over here, labeling the inside solution noticed that the inside here has a lower solute concentration than the outside, which has a higher salt concentration. And if it has, if the inside has a lower solute concentration, that means it will be hypo tonic on the inside. And so here we can label the inside as Hypo Tonic, and so you can see that these words are words of comparison. Once again, you must be comparing to regions on usually those regions are going to be the outside of the cell with the inside of the cell. And so this year concludes our introduction to osmosis and as we move forward, will be able to continue to talk. Maura, Maura about now that we know about the tennis city, we can talk about the direction of water flow so we'll talk more about that in our next video, and I'll see you guys there