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Animation: Monosaccharides

by Pearson
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Monosaccharides, or simple sugars, are the basic building blocks of polysaccharides. They have the general formula (CH2O)n. All monosaccharides contain at least three carbon atoms, with a carbonyl group attached to one carbon and hydroxyl groups attached to the others. Monosaccharides are classified by the length of their carbon skeleton, the location of the carbonyl group, and the spatial arrangement of hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups around the carbon skeleton. Monosaccharides with a terminal carbonyl group (an aldehyde) are aldoses; those with a nonterminal carbonyl group (a ketone) are ketoses. Ribose, the sugar subunit of RNA, is a pentose (a five-carbon sugar). The terminal position of the carbonyl group makes this sugar an aldose. Ribulose, essential to carbon fixation in green plants, is a ketose. Glucose, the most important monosaccharide in the chemistry of life, is a hexose (a six-carbon sugar) with a terminal carbonyl group, making it an aldose. Fructose is a hexose that is a ketose.
Monosaccharides, or simple sugars, are the basic building blocks of polysaccharides. They have the general formula (CH2O)n. All monosaccharides contain at least three carbon atoms, with a carbonyl group attached to one carbon and hydroxyl groups attached to the others. Monosaccharides are classified by the length of their carbon skeleton, the location of the carbonyl group, and the spatial arrangement of hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups around the carbon skeleton. Monosaccharides with a terminal carbonyl group (an aldehyde) are aldoses; those with a nonterminal carbonyl group (a ketone) are ketoses. Ribose, the sugar subunit of RNA, is a pentose (a five-carbon sugar). The terminal position of the carbonyl group makes this sugar an aldose. Ribulose, essential to carbon fixation in green plants, is a ketose. Glucose, the most important monosaccharide in the chemistry of life, is a hexose (a six-carbon sugar) with a terminal carbonyl group, making it an aldose. Fructose is a hexose that is a ketose.