Electron Transport Chain

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on the electron transport chain. And so the electron transport chain is commonly abbreviated as just the E. T. C. And so the electron transport chain, or the E. T. C, is part of the fourth step of aerobic cellular respiration. And really, the electron transport chain, or the E. T. C, consists of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins. And so these air going to be proteins that are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. And so if we take a look at our image down below, notice that these Siris of proteins that you see embedded in the membrane represents the electron transport chain. And it's important to note that in this image that we're still looking at the mitochondria. And so this membrane that you see here represents the inner mitochondrial membrane, and this membrane that you see up above represents the outer mitochondrial membrane. And so, of course, that means that this space that's down below here, within the inner mitochondrial membrane, is going to be the mitochondrial matrix. And then we have the inner mitochondrial membrane, and then the space that's in between the inner and the outer mitochondrial membranes, which is basically this space right here. This space represents the enter membrane space and then, of course, on the outside of the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is basically this blue space that you see up above here. This represents the outside of the mitochondria, but still inside of the cell. So it's going to be the cytoplasm of the cell. And so really, we're looking at the mitochondria here in the electron transport chain. Now it's important to note that the electron transport chain or the E. T. C. Is going to be responsible for harnessing the energy of electrons, as its name implies. And these electrons are going to come from the electron carriers and a D. H and F a. D H two which have been generated throughout this process of Arabic cellular respiration. Okay. And so the energy of the electrons from N A. D. H and F A. D. H two is gonna be harnessed in a Siris of redox reactions or oxidation reduction reactions. And ultimately, the energy of the electrons from these Redox reactions is going to be used to generate a hydrogen ion concentration Grady int by pumping hydrogen ions into the inter membrane space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes of the mitochondria. So let's take a look at our image down below to clear some of this up. So throughout our process of aerobic cellular respiration and like Collis is Peruvian oxidation and the Krebs cycle, we've generated a lot of electron carriers, a lot of N a. D h s and some F A. D. H two s as well. And these electron carriers air gonna take their electrons to the electron transport chain that we have here. And so notice that the n a. D. H is dropping off its electrons here the electron transport chain and becoming an A D plus the empty electron taxicab, if you will, and the F A. D H twos are also dropping off their electrons at the electron transport chain. But just at a different position. And they become f A. D s. And so which you'll notice is that these electrons air getting dropped off at the electron transport chain and they undergo a Siris of redox reactions or oxidation reduction reactions where some proteins are gonna be gaining electrons and they're gonna be losing electrons and others will be gaining them. And they'll continually make their way through the electron transport chain through a Siris of Redox reaction. So the electrons are moving through, they get dropped off, the electrons get dropped off, and then the electrons move their way through the electron transport chain through a series of redox reactions. And the energy from those redox reactions is gonna be used to create ah, hydrogen ion concentration Grady Int, where these hydrogen ions are being continuously pumped into the inter membrane space so that there is a high concentration of hydrogen ions in the inter member in space. Now notice here that the electrons that are being dropped off and moving through the electron transport chain, those electrons end up on what's known as the final electron except ER. And so notice up above and our text were defining the final electron except ER. And so the final electron accept her, as its name implies, is the final molecule that's going to accept the electron transport chains, electrons, and so during aerobic cellular respiration. The final electron, except ER, is the molecule oxygen gas, or 02 And so when oxygen gas is serving as the final electron except er, during aerobic cellular respiration. It's ultimately going to interact with some hydrogen ions to form water. And water is going to be a byproduct of aerobic cellular respiration. And when you go back and look at the overall chemical equation of aerobic cellular respiration, you'll see that water is going to be a byproduct. And that's because oxygen is acting as the final electronic sector, reacting with hydrogen ions to form water. And so let's take a look at our image down below to clear some of this up. And once again, notice that all of these electrons that are being dropped off at the electron transport chain are gonna go and make their way through the electron transport chain. And they end up on the final electron except her, which is going to be oxygen gas. And so notice that we have 02 or oxygen gas here, which is the final electron, except her. And then this final electron, except her oxygen gas, is going to react with some hydrogen ions to produce water. And so over here we have hte tuo, which is water. And once again, this is why water is a byproduct of aerobic cellular respiration. And so this year really concludes our lesson on the electron transport chain. But what we're going to learn here is that the electron transport chain is really just part off the fourth step of Arabic cellular respiration. Because really it is step for a and there is a step for B, and that's because the electron transport chain builds the hydrogen ion concentration Grady Int. But then it's Chemie osmosis that utilizes that hydrogen ion concentration radiant. And so the electron transport chain goes hand in hand with Chemie osmosis, which we're going to talk about and another video as we move forward in our course. But for now, this here concludes our introduction to the electron transport chain and how it's used to generate a hydrogen ion concentration Grady int and how it uses Final Electron. Except, er I mean oxygen gas as the final electron, except ER and that oxygen gas will form water. So we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video