Smell and Taste

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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chemo reception is the detection of chemicals, and it's mediated by chemo receptors, which are what will use for our sense of taste and our sense of smell. Thes chemo receptors change their membrane potential when a specific type of compound is present. Gus Station is what we call our sense of taste, and this is mediated by taste receptors, which are receptors in the taste buds on the tongue. They'll respond to molecules called taste INTs that stimulate thes taste receptors. And they're going to be different varieties of tastings that correspond to the different flavors we can perceive. Those flavors air salt, sour sweet, what's called Mommy and Bitter. The flavor of salt comes from tastings that are electrolytes, specifically sodium acids. Specifically, hydrogen protons will result in these taste. Sour carbohydrates like glucose will taste sweet to us Mommy, which is sometimes described as the fifth taste, and there's actually Japanese Word comes from proteins and amino acids like glutamate. That's that's sort of, um, you know, taste. You get, for example, from eating like a greasy burger or something that that unctuous mommy flavor you get from the meat. It's just tasting the proteins in there really and bitter is used to identify poisonous compounds. That's why we have that awful taste of bitter that makes you go what it's, you know, an evolutionary mechanism to hopefully get you to reject poisons based on their taste. Here you can see a taste receptor or rather, a taste bud with taste receptors in it. And this taste bud will be found all over the tongue here. And it's worth noting that salt and sour receptors actually have the same ion channels to detect their case stints. Uh, interesting to note, because they're both looking for ions right now. Olfaction is what we call our sense of smell. And this is mediated by olfactory receptors, which are chemo receptors that bind odorous, odorous air like tastings. For our knows, they're airborne molecules that air smelled and essentially, uh, thes odorous will make their way into our knows where they will bind to olfactory receptors. Now we have this special part of our brain called the olfactory bulb. In humans, it's not nearly as big as it is, for example, in rodents where it's massive structure. This is the part of the brain that allows us to process this smell information and we actually have these areas called gla Maria line Were olfactory neurons of the same receptor converge. So here in this figure, you can see we have all of these different types of receptors along here. Now you can see that they are all different colors. However, you know, in this model, the blue receptors air all going to be picking up the same types of odorous the red receptors, they're gonna be all picking up the same type of odorous. And the green receptors are all going to respond to the same type of odorous. So even though there interspersed with each other, they're all going to converge in the different GLA Mary ally up here. And you can see that those have been segregated based on whether they're blue, red or green. Now it's worth noting that we actually respond to a special class of chemicals secreted to the environment called pheromones. These are you could almost think of is like a very special type of odorant because they're signaling molecules and they'll actually affect the behavior and physiology of individuals in the same species. And we actually have a special part of our olfactory bulb called the vomeronasal organ that is specifically designed. Thio respond to those pheromones and has pheromone receptors. That's all I have for this lesson, guys. Hopefully now you have a little better understanding of how you see the world pun intended. I'm sorry. See you guys next time.