DNA Fingerprinting

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on DNA fingerprinting. And so DNA fingerprinting is really just a specific technique that is going to be using genetic markers within a genome to identify an individual. And so, just like a fingerprint can be used to identify an individual like the fingerprint that we have down below right here. Uh, DNA fingerprinting can help to identify an individual. And so what are these genetic markers? Well, genetic markers are, uh, sequences of D N A with a known location and are easily identifiable in a genome. Markers are specifically referring to Polly Morph ISMs and polymorphisms are completely different between the genomes of each individual. So their differences in the sequence across different individuals. And so, for example, a single nucleotide polymorphisms, which are commonly abbreviated as SNPs or snips our genetic markers in a genome that differ by just one single nucleotide across different organisms. And so, if we take a look at this example image down below, we're looking at how a single nucleotide polymorphism, uh, can exist between two folios, uh, within the same organism across two different, uh, individuals. And so if we take a look at this image down below. Which will notice is that we have, uh, individual number one, which is right here. And this is the specific D n a sequence of individual number one and down below. We have individual number two who's sequences right here. And what you'll notice is that the D N. A sequence of individual one an individual number two are pretty much exactly the same. Except for this one position here of this, uh, this base pair. And so this would be referred to as a single nucleotide polymorphism or a snip, because it's just this one position here that is going to differ between the two, where individual one has a T a base pair at this position, whereas individual to has a C G base pair. And so these polymorphisms are going to be unique to specific individuals and can be used to help identify an individual just like a, uh, fingerprint can be used to identify an individual. Now, a DNA fingerprint person's DNA fingerprint is really just referring to the combination of all the unique genetic markers and an individual's genome. And so this year concludes our brief introduction to DNA fingerprinting and how these unique genetic markers and polymorphisms can be used to help identify an individual. And so we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward. So I'll see you all in our next video.