Predictions, Hypotheses, & Theories

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to distinguish between predictions, hypotheses and theories. And so a prediction is really just defined as an expected outcome of an event that can either be correct or incorrect. And so a prediction is on Lee going to address the answer to the question. What will happen? And so, for example, I could make a prediction that tomorrow it will rain Now. Tomorrow it will either rain or it will not rain. And so my prediction of this expected outcome of an event will either be will either be correct or incorrect. Uh, now, the hypothesis, on the other hand, is a little bit different now. The hypothesis is defined as a proposed and testable explanation for an observation, and so the explanation here is very, very key. And so, ah, very well designed hypothesis is going to address the answers to two questions. What will happen but also why it will happen and why. Here is really where this explanation comes into the play and so notice that because it answers the same question, what will happen as the prediction? A really well structured hypothesis, a really good hypothesis will actually include a prediction And so, for example, if we go back to that rain example, I could make a hypothesis that tomorrow it will rain because I pointed to the sky Now the hypothesis is not always going to be true. It might not be true that if I point to the sky, it's going to rain. But the hypothesis will always be testable and it will always include an explanation. The why I'm sorry, the what will happen and why it will happen. So it will rain tomorrow because I pointed to the sky. The because part is answering why it will happen now. The last term here. The theory is really just defined as a testable and broad hypothesis of many observation supported by a large body of evidence. And so really, the theory is a hypothesis. So in many ways it's going thio have ah lot of similarity, similarities to the hypothesis and the key terms here for theory that distinguish the theory from the hypothesis eyes the word broad, uh, the word many and the word large. And so the theory is really just ah hypothesis at a much larger scale. And so an example of the theory as it goes with that rain explanation is every single time I point to the sky, it will rain the next day, and so that is a much larger scale. That explains why it will happen and what will happen now down below. What we have is another example that we can apply these three terms of prediction, hypothesis and theory, and so over here on the left were setting up the scenario. And so we're starting the scientific method with an observation and a question, And the observation here in this example is that the lawnmower won't start, and so you can see here we have the lawnmower and you can see that it's not starting. So that's the observation. And the question would be, why doesn't the lawnmower start now? From this question, we could really formulate these three different terms. Prediction. An example of a prediction would be the lawnmower will start if you add gas. Now remember, the prediction is an expected outcome of an event. It can either be correct or incorrect. And so once again, it says, uh, for the prediction. The lawnmower will start if you add gas. Now, if we add gas either the lawnmower will start or the lawnmower will not start. So the prediction can either be correct or incorrect. And so you can see here that if we add gas, uh, to the lawnmower, uh, predicting that it will start is going to be a prediction. Now, over here in the second block Over here, what we have is the hypothesis. Now, once again, the hypothesis is going to be a proposed and testable explanation for the observation. So not only will answer the question to what will happen, but it will also answer the question, too. Why it will happen. So, for example, here what we're looking at as it's saying, the lawnmower stop working because it ran out of gas. So if you add gas, then it will start working. And so what you'll notice is that it does answer the question to what will happen if we add gas. It will start working. But it also answers the question, too. Why it will happen with this because here it ran out of gas. And so the because is answering why it will happen. And the prediction is answering what will happen and so you can see here in our image that this little gas meter is answering the why it will happen part because the gas meters on empty on. So if we add gas, then we predict it will start working now moving on to this third slot over here. What we have is, of course, the theory and the theory once again is pretty much a hypothesis. However, it's at a much broader in larger scale. It's going to be of many observations and supported by a large body of evidence. And so notice. Now, instead of having one lawnmower, we're showing you multiple lawnmowers. We're still explaining why uh, it will happen on were also still explaining what will happen and so notice that it's saying for the theory, all lawnmowers stopped working when they run out of gas, and so you can see the why is because they run out of gas. Uh, the what will happen, um, is going to be. When you add the gas to it, it will start working. And so the theory once again, is going to be at a much broader scale, and that's really the main point here. Now, here at the bottom, we have a note that you guys should take into account here, and that is the fact that technically, hypotheses and theories can never be proven correct. But they can always be falsified, which means they could be proven incorrect. And so that is why you must either accept or reject the hypothesis. But you can never say that the hypothesis is true or correct. In the same goes with the theory on DSO, There are many, many different theories that we're going to introduce here that applied to biology, and once again it's important to keep in mind that they can never be proven correct. But there can be many observations in a large body of evidence that supports that they could be true. But in the future it is possible, and it is always going to be possible that they can be falsified or proven incorrect. And so this year concludes our lesson to distinguishing these three terms. Predictions, hypotheses and theories and moving forward will be able to get a little bit of practice. So I'll see you guys in our next video