Domoic acid is a neurotoxin produced by some species of alga. Domoic acid binds to the kainate receptor on neurons in parts of the brain. The kainate receptor facilitates the movement of calcium into the cell. Excess domoic acid–induced stimulation of the neural kainate receptors causes neural damage and short-term memory loss. Based on this, which of the following is likely true?
Calcium is actively pumped into the cell by the kainate receptor.
The kainate receptor is a GPCR that stimulates adenylate cyclase to produce cAMP that serves to amplify the signal and to speed the signal's transduction through the cytoplasm.
The first two listed responses are correct.
The second and third responses are correct.
The kainate receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, and domoic acid is a ligand.