Types of Genes Regulating Cell Growth

by Jason Amores Sumpter
157 views
5
Was this helpful ?
5
In this video, we're going to introduce two types of genes that regulate cell growth. And so, in a healthy and normal cell that is not cancerous and is not part of the tumor, this healthy normal cell is going to have two types of genes that regulate cell growth. And we've got these two labeled down below number one and number two. And so the first type of gene that's going to regulate cell growth in a healthy, normal cell is a proto oncogene. And so a proto oncogene is going to be a gene that provides signals that promotes appropriate cell division. And so because it's promoting appropriate cell division, proto oncogene is pretty much acting like the green light for cell division. And so it's going to allow cell division to proceed. Now, the second type of gene that regulates cell growth is a tumor suppressor jean. And so the tumor suppressor gene, as its name implies, is going to do pretty much the opposite of the proto oncogene. It's going to provide signals to not promote but inhibit cell division, so it's basically acting like the red light for cell division to inhibit cell division and to slow it down. Now, a protein called P 53 is an example of a protein that serves as a tumor suppressor gene. And so if we take a look at our image down below, over here on the left hand side, notice we're showing you a proto oncogene and how it pretty much acts like the cell division gas pedal. It pretty much promotes cell division, so it acts like the green light for cell division to allow cell division to proceed normally and appropriately. And then over here on the right hand side, notice, we're showing you the tumor suppressor gene, which is pretty much acting like the cell division breaks or the brakes to cell division or the red light for cell division that slows down or inhibit cell division. And so again, within a healthy and normal cell, there are both proto oncogene, and there are tumor suppressor genes that will either promote or inhibit cell division appropriately so that cell division will proceed appropriately. However, although proto oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are normal and healthy genes found a normal and healthy cells, they are susceptible to mutations and mutations in either of these types of jeans and either proto oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes can lead to the development of cancer uncontrollable cell division. And so again, although proto oncogenes are essential. Although proto oncogenes are essential and healthy genes that promote cell division appropriately again, they are susceptible to mutations that congenital wait. Uncle jeans and Anca genes are different than proto oncogenes. Proto oncogenes are healthy and normal genes that are needed and required to promote appropriate cell division. However, aka genes are mutated proto oncogenes. And so that's exactly how we're defining oncogene down below. They are mutated jean that is going to promote unrestrained cell growth. Essentially, it's going to promote cancer. And so this year concludes our introduction to the two types of genes that regulate cell growth. Proto oncogene, zand, tumor suppressor genes and how they are normal, healthy genes that are required to regulate cell division and how they're both susceptible to mutations that can lead to the development of cancer. And so this year concludes this video, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward. So I'll see you all in our next video