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Short Video: Frog Development

by Pearson
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Frog Development Let's observe the development of a frog embryo in pond water. Many of the developmental processes seen in a frog are also observed in other vertebrates. In this time-lapse video, you will see the end of gastrulation and the beginning of organ formation in particular, the beginning of the nervous system in Xenopus, the African clawed frog, an animal that is a favorite of embryologists. This video picks up the frog embryo late in gastrulation. Cleavage has produced numerous cells too small to be seen individually. The cells roll over the lip of the blastopore and into the interior of the gastrula. Inside, lighter-colored yolk-laden cells that originated at the vegetal pole form the endoderm of the embryonic digestive tract. Cells from the animal pole spread over the embryo and form ectoderm. In between, a layer of mesoderm is taking shape. This is the back of the embryo, with what will become the head at the top. The blastopore later becomes the anus. Under the dorsal surface, from head to tail, a rod of mesoderm called the notochord is forming. Later, it will be replaced by the vertebral column. Above the notochord, the ectoderm thickens, forming a neural plate, bounded by two neural folds. This is the beginning of the neurulation, the formation of the nervous system. The neural folds join at the midline and the middle portion of the neural plate sinks beneath the surface, forming a neural tube. The enlarged anterior portion of the neural tube will become the frog's brain, and the posterior portion will develop into the spinal cord.
Frog Development Let's observe the development of a frog embryo in pond water. Many of the developmental processes seen in a frog are also observed in other vertebrates. In this time-lapse video, you will see the end of gastrulation and the beginning of organ formation in particular, the beginning of the nervous system in Xenopus, the African clawed frog, an animal that is a favorite of embryologists. This video picks up the frog embryo late in gastrulation. Cleavage has produced numerous cells too small to be seen individually. The cells roll over the lip of the blastopore and into the interior of the gastrula. Inside, lighter-colored yolk-laden cells that originated at the vegetal pole form the endoderm of the embryonic digestive tract. Cells from the animal pole spread over the embryo and form ectoderm. In between, a layer of mesoderm is taking shape. This is the back of the embryo, with what will become the head at the top. The blastopore later becomes the anus. Under the dorsal surface, from head to tail, a rod of mesoderm called the notochord is forming. Later, it will be replaced by the vertebral column. Above the notochord, the ectoderm thickens, forming a neural plate, bounded by two neural folds. This is the beginning of the neurulation, the formation of the nervous system. The neural folds join at the midline and the middle portion of the neural plate sinks beneath the surface, forming a neural tube. The enlarged anterior portion of the neural tube will become the frog's brain, and the posterior portion will develop into the spinal cord.