Introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation. And so gene regulation in eukaryotes is extremely important to allow for a process known as differential gene expression. And so differential. Gene expression is a process that allows for multi cellular organisms to express jeans differently in different cells, which is going to allow multi cellular organisms to have different cell types. Now what's important to note is that all cells of a multi cellular organism have the same genome or the same set of D N A. But they have a different proteome, or a different set of proteins. And the reason that these different cell types have a different protium is because their genes are being regulated differently. There is differential gene expression and different forms of regulation occurring in different cells. And so, as we move forward in our course, will be able to talk about all of the different types of gene regulation that can occur inside of you carry its. But for now, let's take a look at our image down below, which will help us better understand differential gene expression and how it can lead to different cell types within a multi cellular organism. And so, for example, liver cells and skin cells of a multi cellular organism. They're going to have the same D n a or the same genome. But those genes will have, uh, be expressed differently. So different genes are going to be expressed. And that leads to a different protium, or a different set of proteins, and that leads to a different cell types. And so, over here on the far left hand side, notice that we're showing you a single eukaryotic cell and eukaryotic multi cellular organisms like humans, for example, they start off as a single eukaryotic cell. And so, uh, this single eukaryotic cell is, of course, going to divide to create trillions of cells. But it's also going to undergo differential gene expression where different cells are going to be regulating their genes differently, leading to different proteins being expressed, which leads to different cell types. And so the liver cell is going to have the same DNA as the red blood cell, which has the same DNA as the neuron and the skin cell and the kidney cells. So the D. N A of all of these cell types is the same. But what is different is the expression of those genes. The expression of the DNA is different, and the expression of the D N A leads to a different protium different set of proteins. And so the liver cell. Although it has the same DNA as all of these other ones, it has a unique proteome in comparison to these other, uh, cell types. And so what you'll see here is that a eukaryotic multi cellular organism like a human is going to have a whole bunch of different cell types, all thanks to differential gene expression. And so again, differential gene expression is possible through all of the different forms of gene regulation that you carry. Those are capable of performing, and we'll be able to talk about those different types of gene regulation and eukaryotes as we move forward in our course. But for now, this year concludes our introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation, and I'll see you guys in our next video