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Animation: Regulation of Transcription by Transcriptional Activators and Enhancers

by Pearson
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Most of the fine-tuning of gene expression occurs at the transcription level-- making an RNA copy of a DNA sequence. Recall that to initiate transcription, an RNA polymerase must bind to the promoter region adjacent to a gene. This cannot occur without the help of specific protein transcription factors. Some transcription factors, called activators, bind to enhancer regions some distance from the gene. The DNA bends, bringing the activators closer to the gene, where the activators interact with other transcription factors and RNA polymerase to initiate transcription.
Most of the fine-tuning of gene expression occurs at the transcription level-- making an RNA copy of a DNA sequence. Recall that to initiate transcription, an RNA polymerase must bind to the promoter region adjacent to a gene. This cannot occur without the help of specific protein transcription factors. Some transcription factors, called activators, bind to enhancer regions some distance from the gene. The DNA bends, bringing the activators closer to the gene, where the activators interact with other transcription factors and RNA polymerase to initiate transcription.