Eukaryotic Post-Translational Regulation

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on eukaryotic post translational regulation, and so eukaryotes can regulate expression at the post translational level. Bye. Controlling the activity of the expressed protein. And so recall from our previous lesson videos that post translational modifications can be abbreviated as P. T. M's. And really, they are defined as Covalin modifications to proteins after translation takes place, and that is what the post route here is referring to. Post is referring to after now these post translational modifications or P T. M s. They can either activate or inactivate a protein, depending on the specific protein in the specific scenario, or they can actually tag the protein or mark. The protein for degradation by Proteus is, and so Proteus is are specific enzymes that are going to degrade proteins by breaking polyp peptide bonds, the bonds that link amino acids together. And so by breaking and degrading, uh, by degrading proteins. By breaking Polly peptide bonds, they're capable of making single amino acids. And so if we take a look at our image down below, we can get a better understanding of these post translational modifications, and so protein activity can be controlled by post translational modifications or the degradation by Proteus is. And so taking a look at our little mini map over here, which will notice, is post translational protein modifications occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and so up above. What we're showing you is the M R N a. Here that's going to be translated into a protein. But in many cases, proteins that are initially translated can be inactive proteins. And so the post translational modification here includes this modification tag basically co violently modifying the protein to create an active protein. And so this is a form of turning on gene expression to ensure that there is an active protein product. And again, this is through post translational modification, a modification that occurs after translation has occurred. Now again, post translational modifications can also inactivate a protein as well, so it's also a form of turning off a gene Now down below. What we're showing you is again an M RNA being translated into a protein, Uh, and this time there is again a modification, all tag being added to the protein. But this time this tag is actually marking the protein for degradation by this Proteas enzyme, and this protease enzyme in blue is going to perform protein degradation to break up that protein into individual amino acids. And so, of course, if we are degrading the protein, then that is a form of turning off the gene. It's a form of regulation. And so, uh, what you can see here is that through post translational modifications, proteins can be turned on and or proteins can be turned off, depending on the specific scenario. And so this year concludes our brief introduction to Eukaryotic post translational regulation, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course, so I'll see you all in our next video.