Specific Transcription Factors

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to talk more details about specific transcription factors, and so recall from our previous lesson videos that specific transcription factors are only going to be required for increasing the transcription of a specific genes. So specific transcription factors are not required for all jeans. They're only required for some specific genes. Now, these specific transcription factors they actually bind to these regions of DNA called control elements and so control elements are really just regions of non coding DNA, where specific transcription factors will bind. And really, there are two different types of control elements. There are distal control elements, and then there are proximal control elements. Now the distal control elements, as their name implies, are going to be located pretty far or distant from the promoter sequence. And really, a group of distal control elements are referred to as enhancers, And so an enhancer is going to be defined as a group of distal control elements where specific transcription factors will bind now proximal control elements. On the other hand, as their name implies, they're going to be located close or in close proximity to the promoter sequence. And so let's take a look at our image down below to get a better understanding of these specific transcription factors. And so specific transcription factors can bind either to distal or proximal control elements. And again, over here on the left hand side, we have our little miniature version of the map where you can see that transcription and transcription all regulation occurs within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. And so notice over here, number one, What we're showing you are the distal control elements. And again, a group of distal control elements is referred to as an enhancer. And so you can see these three different regions right here that are these distal control elements and notice that they are some distance away from the promoter region of the gene. And so this little horizontal to slash bar here just represents that it is a significant distance away from the promoter region. So it's very, very far from the promoter. Um and then over here, number two, what we have are the proximal control elements and the proximal control elements. These two yellow regions here they are fairly close to the promoter region. And so what you'll notice is that it's these specific transcription factors highlighted here or or symbolize here with these, uh, pink shapes. Uh, these specific transcription factors can either bind to the distal or the proximal control elements, as you can see here, binding to the distal and then down below in our image here. Specific transcription factors binding to the proximal control elements. But the general transcription factors that we talked about in our previous lesson videos recall that they will bind specifically to the promoter region, and they are needed for all genes in general. And so basically, the idea here is that specific transcription factors can either bind to proximal control elements or distal control elements. And so this year concludes our brief lesson on specific transcription factors, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video