Some airports have attempted to scare geese off by playing goose alarm calls over loudspeakers. This tactic kept the geese away initially, but soon the geese ignored the alarm calls. How would you explain this outcome?
a. The alarm calls are a social signal that geese ignore unless they can see the other geese.
b. The geese became imprinted on the alarm calls.
c. The geese used spatial learning to navigate the environment of the airport.
d. The geese became habituated to the alarm calls when no danger was present.
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