Introduction to Chemical Bonding

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to chemical bonding. And so chemical bonds are really just defined as attractive forces between atoms that hold those atoms together to form either molecules and or compounds. And so molecules is really a term that is very, very broad and refers to any substance that contains greater than or equal to two chemically bound Adams. Now these atoms could be of different elements, or these atoms could be of the same element. And so, for example, 02 is an example off a molecule, which is oxygen gas. So if we take a look at our image down below, over here on the left hand side, notice that we're showing you oxygen gas, which can be represented like this, or it could be represented in this format. Right here is well, but really oxygen gas is when you have two oxygen atoms that are chemically bound to each other. And so because we have to at least two atoms that are bound to each other, this makes oxygen gas an example of a molecule. But there are really all different types of molecules, and, um, you can see here in this image. We're showing you how oxygen gas could be taken from the atmosphere and breathe into our lungs, and we'll talk more about that process. Ah, little bit later in our course. But now, to distinguish these compounds from molecules now compounds, as their name implies, with the comp part. Here are a little bit mawr complicated, and that's because they are going to have at least two different elements. So notice here that we're comparing the word Adams to this word. Elements. Molecules have at least two chemically bound Adams. It doesn't matter if those atoms are of the same element or if they're of different elements. Either way, if it has at least two chemically bound Adams, then it will be a molecule. But compounds, on the other hand, as their name implies there a little bit more complicated because not all molecules are compounds Onley. Very specific molecules are compounds, and so you can see that compounds are defined as complicated molecules themselves, so they are molecules, just a very specific type of molecule that is composed of at least two different elements. And so, for example, water is going to be an example of a compound, and that is because it has two different elements. It has the element hydrogen, and it has the element oxygen. Whereas oh, to here does not have to different elements. It only has two different atoms of the same element. And so oxygen gas is not ah, compound, even though it is a molecule. But water here is both a molecule and a compound because it has, it meets both of these requirements here. And so if we take a look at our image down below, you can see that we're saying that water is an example of a compound once again because it has two different elements hydrogen element and an oxygen element. But another example of a compound is going to be this, uh, structure right here, which is a glucose molecule. Now, you'll need to know about glucose later in our course, but it's good to start familiarizing yourself with this, uh, compound here. Now, this is a compound because notice that it has at least two different elements. Notice that it has the element oxygen throughout. In these locations, it has the element carbon on these locations right here and then. It also has, uh, the element hydrogen as well. And so this compound has at least two different elements, and that's what makes it a compound. And glucose is really a sugar that is going to be found in many different forms of life and many different, uh, mixtures to such as in honey. Now, the last idea here that you all should know is this idea of the chemical formula the chemical formula is really right, reveals both the number and the type of atoms that air in a molecule or compound. And so an example of a chemical formula is this chemical formula that you see right here, which is the chemical formula for glucose. And so you can see that if scientists had to write out the entire structure of glucose every single time it came out, it might take a long time to do that. And so chemical formulas can help to, uh, write down structures much, much faster. So writing down C six h 12 06 is much faster than drawing out this entire structure, So chemical formulas can be very, very useful in that respect. So notice that here we're taking this compound glucose and we're changing it into a chemical formula of glucose, and so you can see that there are a total off. Uh, this says six carbon atoms. So we can say this part right here means that there are a total of six carbon atoms. Uh, this part right here with the H 12 means that there are 12 hydrogen atoms right here. And then this part over here says that there are six oxygen atoms, so we can fill that in right here. And so this here is what we refer to as a chemical formula, and you'll be able to see many more examples of these as we make our way through our course. Another example would be h 20 is another example of a chemical formula. But this year concludes our introduction to chemical bonds and how they form molecules and compounds and moving forward. We're going to talk about many different types of chemical bonds. So I'll see you all in our next video