So in our exploration of chemistry, eventually, we're going to reach a topic called dimensional analysis, which can be thought of as more complex word problems where our job is to isolate a particular unit. Now, a key component of dimensional analysis is the conversion factor. The conversion factor can be thought of as simply a ratio or fraction that ties together two different units. Now, for example, we can say that a day is composed of 24 hours. So this is saying that one day equals 24 hours. It is a conversion factor because it is tying together day as a unit with hours, which is a different unit. To make it into a conversion factor, we have to change it into a fractional ratio. So we can set it up as one day is 24 hours or 24 hours is one day. So there, we're combining these two different types of units and showing their relationship to one another. Besides the conversion factor, we can also have a given amount. Now, a given amount is just a value containing only one unit. For example, we spent 3 hours studying chemistry today, and trust me there will be times when you're spending that many hours or more in preparation for a quiz or exam. So here, our given amount is just 3 hours. I am not tying those 3 hours to any other units. So it's just 3 hours by itself. And it's these combinations of conversion factors and given amounts that will be vital in our understanding of dimensional analysis. But, again, before we get to dimensional analysis, let's look over some questions where it's just our responsibility to help identify the conversion factors and given amounts within the particular question. So click on the next video and let's get started.

- 1. The Chemical World9m
- 2. Measurement and Problem Solving2h 25m
- 3. Matter and Energy2h 15m
- Classification of Matter18m
- States of Matter8m
- Physical & Chemical Changes19m
- Chemical Properties8m
- Physical Properties5m
- Temperature (Simplified)9m
- Law of Conservation of Mass5m
- Nature of Energy5m
- First Law of Thermodynamics7m
- Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions7m
- Heat Capacity16m
- Thermal Equilibrium (Simplified)8m
- Intensive vs. Extensive Properties13m

- 4. Atoms and Elements2h 33m
- The Atom (Simplified)9m
- Subatomic Particles (Simplified)12m
- Isotopes17m
- Ions (Simplified)22m
- Atomic Mass (Simplified)17m
- Periodic Table: Element Symbols6m
- Periodic Table: Classifications11m
- Periodic Table: Group Names8m
- Periodic Table: Representative Elements & Transition Metals7m
- Periodic Table: Phases (Simplified)8m
- Periodic Table: Main Group Element Charges12m
- Atomic Theory9m
- Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment9m

- 5. Molecules and Compounds1h 50m
- Law of Definite Proportions9m
- Periodic Table: Elemental Forms (Simplified)6m
- Naming Monoatomic Cations6m
- Naming Monoatomic Anions5m
- Polyatomic Ions25m
- Naming Ionic Compounds11m
- Writing Formula Units of Ionic Compounds7m
- Naming Acids18m
- Naming Binary Molecular Compounds6m
- Molecular Models4m
- Calculating Molar Mass9m

- 6. Chemical Composition1h 23m
- 7. Chemical Reactions1h 43m
- 8. Quantities in Chemical Reactions1h 16m
- 9. Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table2h 32m
- Wavelength and Frequency (Simplified)5m
- Electromagnetic Spectrum (Simplified)11m
- Bohr Model (Simplified)9m
- Emission Spectrum (Simplified)3m
- Electronic Structure4m
- Electronic Structure: Shells5m
- Electronic Structure: Subshells4m
- Electronic Structure: Orbitals11m
- Electronic Structure: Electron Spin3m
- Electronic Structure: Number of Electrons4m
- The Electron Configuration (Simplified)20m
- The Electron Configuration: Condensed4m
- Ions and the Octet Rule9m
- Valence Electrons of Elements (Simplified)5m
- Periodic Trend: Metallic Character4m
- Periodic Trend: Atomic Radius (Simplified)7m
- Periodic Trend: Ionization Energy (Simplified)9m
- Periodic Trend: Electron Affinity (Simplified)7m
- Electron Arrangements5m
- The Electron Configuration: Exceptions (Simplified)12m

- 10. Chemical Bonding2h 10m
- Lewis Dot Symbols (Simplified)7m
- Ionic Bonding6m
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- Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (Simplified)4m
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- Molecular Geometry (Simplified)9m
- Bond Angles (Simplified)11m
- Dipole Moment (Simplified)14m
- Molecular Polarity (Simplified)7m

- 11 Gases2h 15m
- 12. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces1h 11m
- 13. Solutions3h 1m
- 14. Acids and Bases2h 14m
- 15. Chemical Equilibrium1h 27m
- 16. Oxidation and Reduction1h 33m
- 17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry53m

# Conversion Factors (Simplified) - Online Tutor, Practice Problems & Exam Prep

Dimensional analysis involves using conversion factors, which are ratios that relate different units, to solve complex problems. Key conversion factors to memorize include: 1 inch = 2.54 cm, 1 liter = 1.057 quarts, and 1 pound = 454 grams. A given amount is a value in a single unit, such as 3 hours. Mastering these concepts is essential for effective problem-solving in chemistry, particularly in areas like stoichiometry and unit conversions.

**Conversion Factors** are used to tie together 2 different units.

## Conversion Factors & Given Amounts

### Conversion Factors (Simplified) Concept 1

#### Video transcript

The given amount contains one unit type and the conversion factor connects two different units together.

### Conversion Factors (Simplified) Example 1

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So Klutch's ugly but good chocolate chip cookie recipe is always a hit at our office parties. My budget is $80. The recipe makes 18 servings for the party. Each serving requires 8 chocolate truffle chips at a cost of 50¢ per 5 chocolate truffle chips. From the information provided, determine the given amount and all conversion factors. Now our given amount, remember, that's when we have only 1 unit. That's it. Our given amount has to be the $80 because they're not saying $80 connected to some other units. It's just dollars by itself. The conversion factors though, these are when we have 2 units bonded together, 2 different units bonded together. This one is a little bit trickier. If we look at the sentence after the $80 budget, they tell me the recipe makes 18 servings. So that there is a conversion factor. The conversion factor is 1 recipe has 18 servings. Because recipe and servings are 2 different units. Let's look at the next line. Each serving requires 8 chocolate truffle chips. So servings, each serving has this many chocolate truffle chips. That's also a conversion factor because it's one serving is 8 chocolate truffle chips, which I'll abbreviate as CTC. They tell me that it is 50¢ per 5. The word per there definitely is a big help because it tells us that that amount of 50¢ and 5 are connected together. So then that would be our last conversion factor. So 50¢ for every 5 chocolate truffle chips. Eventually, when we move on to dimensional analysis later on, we'll see how these units cancel out with one another and help us isolate our final value. But remember, a given amount has 1 unit, a conversion factor is 2 different units mixed together. Now that we've seen this first example, let's continue onward with practice questions.

### Conversion Factors (Simplified) Concept 2

#### Video transcript

Now remember that a conversion factor deals with two units combined together. And when it comes to our conversion factors, the most common ones involve length, volume, or mass. Now, remember, we see a lot of different conversion factors here, but only the ones that are highlighted in purple you should commit to memory. The others will be given to you within the work problem that you're solving or some type of formula sheet. So let's start out with length. We know here that 1 inch is 2.54 centimeters. So we need to commit that to memory. Next, we can say that 1 yard is equal to 3 feet. One kilometer is 0.6214 miles. One meter is 1.094 yards, and 1 mile is 5,280 feet.

For volume, the first two in purple are the ones you need to memorize, and that's 1 milliliter equals 1 centimeter cubed, and 1 milliliter is equal to 1 cc. Next, we can say that 1 liter is equal to 1.057 quarts, 1 liter is 1 decimeter cubed, 1 fluid ounce is equal to 29.574 milliliters, and 1 gallon is 3.785 liters.

For mass, tablets can come in different types of masses. The most common one is when one tablet is equal to 254 milligrams. Now, if they're talking about a tablet and they don't give you the mass, usually they mean a 250-milligram tablet. But check the question. Sometimes the tablet may be a different mass and they'll tell you that new mass associated with it.

Next, we can say here that 1 pound is equal to approximately 454 grams, 1 ounce is 28.35 grams, and then finally, 1 kilogram is 2.205 pounds. So these are all types of common conversion factors that you'll come into contact with when doing different types of problems. Now remember, only the ones that are highlighted in purple, you should commit to memory.

### Conversion Factors (Simplified) Example 2

#### Video transcript

So here in this example question, it says while packing for a trip to Spain, a traveler wishes to weigh their luggage to make sure it doesn't exceed 23 kilograms. Unfortunately, their bathroom scale, for some reason, can only weigh in ounces. What conversion factors could they use to determine the mass of their luggage? Alright. So in this question, they're telling us that we don't want to go over 23 kilograms. Kilograms is not attached to any other unit, so 23 must represent our given amount. We have 23 kilograms, and what we need to do here is we need to find a way of dealing with ounces. Okay. So we have to find a way of converting these kilograms into ounces. Because we're dealing with mass values, we know that the conversion factors we're gonna have to utilize have to do with mass in some way. Now we've kind of done this before when we did metric prefix conversions. We want to get rid of these kilograms. To get rid of these kilograms, we'd have to place them here on the bottom. And if we go to the conversion factors for mass, we see that kilograms are on this side, and we want to get to ounces. Right? Well, kilograms are attached to grams by way of metric prefix conversions, and we want to go to grams because grams are connected to ounces.

Here, we're not gonna solve for it. Here, we're just setting up the conversion factors necessary for us to isolate ounces. We're just getting the hang of this whole idea of conversion factors, given amounts, and their general positions in dimensional analysis. Don't worry about calculations yet. We're kind of slowly building our way up to questions like that. Alright. So kilograms go here, which will be connected to, to grams over here. Since this is a metric prefix conversion, remember that the coefficient of 1 is always associated or always next to the metric prefix. And remember, from our metric prefix multipliers, 1 kilo is 103. So we started out here by using our conversion factor. So now kilograms are gone. Now we have grams. Grams are connected to ounces. So we're gonna bring this conversion factor in. Right? So we're gonna say here, that grams go here, ounces go here, and the conversion factor up here says that 1 ounce is equal to 28.35 grams. Grams would cancel out and we'd be left with ounces. So for this question, the conversion factors that we'd have to use is this metric prefix conversion factor of 103 grams over 1 kilogram and 1 ounce over 28.35 grams. Those are the 2 conversion factors we'd utilize in order to safely convert kilograms into ounces. We see that in everyday processes, we can incorporate chemistry and we can incorporate these different types of mathematical operations. Now that we've seen this example, let's move on and continue our discussion on conversion factors and given amounts.

A patient has approximately 83 mL of blood pumping by their heart at each beat. By assuming they have a pulse of 75 beats per minute it is calculated that the patient pumps 8.964 x 10^{6} mL in one day. Identify the given amount and all conversion factors.

#### Problem Transcript

For 7 hours, an intravenous bag delivers medication to a patient at a rate of 2.75 drops a second with a mass of 42 mg per drop. Identify the given amount and all conversion factors.

The dispensing of prescription drugs are usually prescribed in units of mg per kg of body weight. A new prescription drug has a recommended dosage of 11 mg/kg. A 75 lb child requires three tablets each weighing 125 mg for their recommended dosage. Identify the given amount and all conversion factors.

#### Problem Transcript

### Here’s what students ask on this topic:

What is a conversion factor in chemistry?

A conversion factor in chemistry is a ratio or fraction that relates two different units, allowing you to convert a quantity expressed in one unit to another unit. For example, the conversion factor between inches and centimeters is 1 inch = 2.54 cm. This means you can convert inches to centimeters by multiplying by 2.54, or convert centimeters to inches by dividing by 2.54. Conversion factors are essential in dimensional analysis, which is used to solve complex problems involving different units.

How do you use conversion factors in dimensional analysis?

In dimensional analysis, conversion factors are used to convert a given amount from one unit to another. You start with the given amount, multiply it by the appropriate conversion factor(s), and ensure that units cancel out correctly. For example, to convert 5 inches to centimeters, you use the conversion factor 1 inch = 2.54 cm: $5\mathrm{in}\times \frac{2.54\mathrm{cm}}{1\mathrm{in}}=12.7\mathrm{cm}$. The inches cancel out, leaving you with the result in centimeters.

What are some common conversion factors that need to be memorized?

Some common conversion factors that are essential to memorize include: 1 inch = 2.54 cm, 1 liter = 1.057 quarts, 1 pound = 454 grams, 1 milliliter = 1 cm^{3}, and 1 kilometer = 0.6214 miles. These conversion factors are frequently used in chemistry for converting between different units of length, volume, and mass. Memorizing these will help you solve problems more efficiently.

What is the difference between a given amount and a conversion factor?

A given amount is a value expressed in a single unit, such as 3 hours or 5 grams. It does not involve any relationship to another unit. A conversion factor, on the other hand, is a ratio that relates two different units, such as 1 inch = 2.54 cm. Conversion factors are used to convert given amounts from one unit to another in dimensional analysis.

Why is it important to memorize certain conversion factors in chemistry?

Memorizing certain conversion factors is important in chemistry because it allows you to quickly and accurately convert between units without needing to look up the values each time. This is particularly useful in solving problems involving stoichiometry, unit conversions, and other calculations where time and accuracy are crucial. Knowing key conversion factors like 1 inch = 2.54 cm or 1 liter = 1.057 quarts can significantly streamline your problem-solving process.

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