Osmoregulation and Excretion Practice Problems
Which of the following heavy metal pollutants cause severe toxicity in fish?
Most marine animals are osmoconformers and keep their bodies ______to the environment, whereas most freshwater animals are osmoregulatory and keep their bodies ___to the environment.
Aluminum is considered very harmful to fish because it can result in _______activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and ______ in osmolarity.
The movement of water from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential across a semipermeable membrane is termed as:
What happened to a plant cell when placed in a diluted solution of NaCl?
Diffusion of water out of the body is a major osmoregulatory challenge that_____need to overcome:
The organisms that keep their internal fluids isotonic to their environment by maintaining an internal salinity similar to their ambient conditions are called:
Inhibition of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in humans results in the production of a ______of _____urine.
The animals that do not adjust their internal salt concentrations according to the external environment are called osmoconformers. Which of the following are osmoconformers?
Marine fishes have _______ that are present in gills that help in the active loss of salts
Nitrogenous waste that requires maximum water for its excretion is _____, whereas nitrogenous waste that requires minimum water for its excretion is _____.
Most cartilaginous fishes possess salt-secreting organs known as:
A fish can encounter various osmoregulatory problems in different environments. Given the following issues, select the option that correctly describes the osmoregulatory problems among freshwater fish.
P. Loss of water
Q. Salts buildup within the body
R. Osmotic flooding of cells
S. Loss of salts
The concentrated urine is produced by ___nephrons because of presence of____:
The maximum reabsorption of water from the kidneys back to the blood takes place from:
The water permeability of the collecting ducts is increased by:
Which region of the kidney has high osmolarity as a result of diffusion of salt from the descending limb of the loop of Henle?
Which of the following results from a countercurrent mechanism?
Nitrogenous wastes tend to form toxic ammonia, which must be converted into a less toxic form before being eliminated from the body. Reptiles and birds convert ammonia to _________, while mammals convert it to ________.
Which of the following conditions reduce urine output in marine bony fishes?
What is an excretion-related adaptive trait found in desert animals?
Reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron is __________ selective.
Annelid metanephridia receive filtrate from which of the following?