Animal Cell Structure and Function Let's review the structure and function of the parts of a typical animal cell. Peroxisome is the organelle that carries out diverse metabolic processes and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product, which it converts to water (H2O). Flagellum is the appendage that propels the cell. Ribosomal sub-units are made in the Nucleolus. Chromatin refers to the strands containing DNA (genes) along with associated protein. The Nucleus is a large organelle that contains most of the genes that control the cell. The Nuclear Envelope is the double membrane that encloses the nucleus. The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum refers to the membranous tubules and sacs where secretory proteins and membranes are manufactured. The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is the portion of the endomembrane system that is important in lipid synthesis, detoxification, and calcium storage. The Golgi Apparatus is the organelle that modifies, stores, and repackages products of the ER, mostly for secretion. Ribosomes are small structures that serve as the sites of protein synthesis. Microtubules are the rods that shape and support the cell and serve as tracks along which other organelles can move. Centrioles are cell components that are identical in structure to basal bodies. The organelle Mitochondrion carries out cellular respiration, the process of converting the chemical energy of sugars and other molecules to chemical energy in the form of ATP. Microfilaments are thin, solid protein rods, especially numerous in muscle cells, that are involved in cell support and movement. The Plasma Membrane acts as a selective barrier, allowing the passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes. The Lysosome is where you find a stockpile of digestive enzymes that are important in breaking down nutrients, destroying bacteria, recycling, and development.