in this video, we're going to begin our discussion on Muda rotation. Now. Muna rotation is really just a specific type of epi memorization. And so, before we actually define Mutar rotation, its first helpful to define epi, memorization and so EPA mur zey shin is defined as the process of inter converting a Palmer's. And really, that's just a fancy way of saying changing wanna Palmer into the other a bomber. Now, of course, we know from our previous lesson videos that a bombers are just specific types of dia steri, a MERS that differ on Lee in the configuration of any one single Cairo carbon. And so because spammers are just specific types of dia, Steri, a MERS and die osteria MERS are not mirror images. This also means that farmers are not mirror images, which is why this guy right here is kind of confused looking into the mirror and seeing that he is not looking at a mirror image. Now if we take a look at our image down below over here, notice that d glucose and de manos our EP Immers and the reason that they rep immerses because notice that they Onley differ from each other in the configuration of just one single Cairo carbon. And that is the sea to Cairo carbon that we have highlighted here. So notice that the sea to Cairo carbon on D glucose has a D configuration, since it's pointing to the right and notice that the sea to Cairo carbon on de Manos has an L configurations, it's pointing to the left, but outside of the configuration of the sea to Cairo carbon, they are identical to each other, which is what makes these two emirs of each other. Now the process of EP immer ization is literally the process of converting one FMR into the other a bomber. And so, of course, this is going to require changing the configuration. And so if we have to change the configuration, that means that we're going to have to break and reform bonds. And so breaking and reforming stable Covalin bonds is generally going to require a catalyst, and so happy memorization generally is going to require a catalyst, such as an enzyme to break bonds and then reform the bonds in a different orientation. And again, this is all because there is a change in the configuration and so moving forward this line here requiring a catalyst is gonna be something that we're gonna want to keep in mind as we move on and discuss Mutar rotation because Mutar rotation will not require a catalyst. But here, uh, this here concludes our introduction toe memorization. And in our next lesson video, we'll talk about mewtwo rotation, so I'll see you guys there.
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So now that we've introduced APP memorization in this video, we're going to talk about Muda rotation. And so, as we already mentioned in our last lesson, video Muda rotation is literally just a specific type of API memorization that's going to enter convert an Immers instead of embalmers. And so this includes converting Alfa animals in tow, beta animals and vice versa. And so, if we take a look down below at our image notice in the middle here we have our open chain linear form of the sugar d glucose. And we already know that the Alba Hide group here on carbon number one can react with the alcohol group here on carbon number five and that will allow this linear mono sacha ride to sick lies and form either this animal over here on the left or this animal over here on the right. And so notice that this animal over here on the left has its alcohol group on the opposite side of the ring as the highest numbered carbon. So it's pointing down and towards the ants on the ground. So it's going to be the Alfa Animal or Alfa D glucose piranhas and then notice that this animal over here has its hydroxyl group pointing upwards in the same direction as the highest numbered carbon. And so because the bumps of the Betas are on the same side, this is going to be the beta animal or beta d glucose piranhas. And so mute a rotation again is just gonna be the process of converting the Alfa animal to the beta anima, or vice versa. And so going from this animal over to this animal over here is mute a rotation. So essentially the pink arrow represents muted rotation and also going from this animal backwards to this animal over here, this would also be mute a rotation. Now, what's interesting to point out is that on Lee, the free and americ carbons that air forming either, ahem ius it'll or Hemi Kettle are actually able to muda rotate and by free and americ carbon. All we mean is that the animated carbon is part of either a Hemi Astal or a Hemi Kita and so we can see down below that this and the mayor carbon is part of Ah heh me a settle. And so this is capable of Muda rotating and this one over here is also part of a Hemi asset tell, so it's free to Muda rotate backwards as well. And so what you'll notice is that one of the main differences between EPA memorization and Mewtwo rotation is that the process of MUNA rotation does not require a catalyst, so no catalyst is needed. And so it's true that mute irritation does require the breaking and reforming of bonds in order for this configuration to get changed into this configuration. However, with AB memorization in our last lesson video, the bonds that were being broken and reformed were very stable co violent bonds. And so, in order to break and reform stable Covalin bonds, you're definitely going to need a catalyst. But here, with Muda rotation since Hemi a settles and heavy, he tells, are already relatively unstable, they do not need a catalyst in order to break apart and reform the linear monos. I cried, which can then go on to close and form the opposite ring animal. And so really, this last line here describes what's happening with Muda rotation, which is when one ring animal briefly opens up. So imagine this animal opening up to this linear chain right here. And then the linear chain can go and close again to produce the opposite ring animal, and that is the real process of media rotation. And so because Muda rotation does not require a catalyst, any, uh, sugar that has a free and America carbon is going to be mute, a rotating and solution and converting from one animal into the other animals. And so if there is a free and America carbon on the sugar, then we can expect to have a mixture of animals and solution, a mixture of Alfa and beta animals. And so this here concludes our introduction to Mutar rotation, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward, so I'll see you guys in our next video.
Which of the following sugars undergoes mutarotation in neutral aqueous solution?