4. Protein Structure
Simple Vs. Conjugated Proteins
Simple Vs Conjugated Proteins
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in this video, we're going to distinguish between simple and conjugated proteins, so the difference between simple and conjugated proteins is actually pretty simple and so simple. Proteins are literally simple because they Onley contain amino acid residues, but they have no other chemical components now. Conjugated proteins, on the other hand, are proteins that, of course, contain amino acid residues because you can't be a protein without having amino acid residues. But conjugated proteins also contain other permanently associated chemical components that are not amino acid residues. And so these other chemical components are called prosthetic groups. And so the definition of prosthetic groups are just tightly bound, non amino acid components or parts of a conjugated protein. And so, in our example, down below, we can distinguish better between the simple and conjugated proteins and on the left. Over here, what we have is an image of an enzyme known as chemo. Trips in and Kimo trips is a pep today's or an enzyme that breaks down the peptide bonds of other proteins, and later in our course, we're gonna talk a lot more details about chemo trips and structure and function. But for now, what I want you guys to know is that kinda trips is an example of a simple protein, and the reason that it is a simple protein is because kinda trips and Onley contains amino acid residues but no other chemical components. And so when we look at Kama trips and structure, we could see that there are Alfa Hillis season here. There are beta pleated sheets. There are loops and beta turns, but we don't see any other sign of other chemical components that are not amino acid residues. And so that's what makes chemo trips in a simple protein. Now, over here on the right notice, we have a hemoglobin protein shown, and we've talked about hemoglobin multiple times and our previous videos. So we know that hemoglobin is a hetero te trimmer or a protein with four, uh, sub units, and so we can see that we have one sub unit over here that is identical to this other sub unit over here. And then we have these other two sub units that are identical to each other, but different than the yellow sub units. And so that's what makes that's what makes hemoglobin a hetero te trimmer and which will notices throughout the hemoglobin structure. There are these discs here, these yellowish discs with a red ball in the middle that looked like a little alien spaceship. And these are not amino acid residues. And we could tell because when we zoom in on it over here, we can see that there are iron atoms in the center. There are all of these cyclic carbon rings, and there are all of these double bonds, and it does not have the typical structure of an amino acid, which means that it is not an amino acid. And because this chemical component that is not an amino acid is associated with the protein that makes it a prosthetic group and more specifically for hemoglobin, this prosthetic group is known as a heem group. Now, later, in our course, we're gonna talk a lot more details about hemoglobin structure and function. But for now, what I want you guys to know is that because hemoglobin has this prosthetic group that is an anonymous no acid chemical that makes hemoglobin a conjugated protein. And there are other proteins out there that contain, uh, non amino acid prosthetic groups like hemoglobin. And so, uh, This concludes our lesson on the difference between simple proteins and conjugated proteins, and in our next practice video will be able to get some practice applying these concepts, so I'll see you guys there.
Which of the following images shows a conjugated protein?
Simple Vs Conjugated Proteins
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So now that we know the difference between simple and conjugated proteins, we can talk about the classes of conjugated proteins. And it turns out that there are six main classes of conjugated proteins and these six main classes. They differ by their prosthetic groups. And so, in our example below you'll see we have a table here off the six classes of conjugated proteins. And not that you guys need to memorize all of these classes right now. But throughout our course, we're gonna be talking about enzymes and proteins that fall under each of these classes of conjugated proteins. So it's good to start familiarizing yourself with these classes. And so, for our first class of conjugated protein, what we have are the light bo proteins. We have the lipoproteins. And, of course, the prosthetic group for lipoproteins are just lipids, and an example is lipoprotein light base, and this is an enzyme that's critical and fatty acid metabolism or the breakdown of fats such as triglycerides. And we'll talk about this when we get to fatty acid metabolism later in our course. Now, our second class of congregated proteins are the Glencoe glycoprotein and the glycoprotein prosthetic group is just, Ah, carbo hydrate their carbohydrates and an example is immunoglobulin g or PG, and this is just an antibody, and we'll talk a lot more about antibodies later in our course as well. Now our third class of conjugated proteins are the phosphate proteins. And of course, the prosthetic group is going to be a phosphate group. Okay, and so an example of a fossil protein is fossil protein, fossil protein, phosphor lace one or P P. One. And this enzyme is important and regulating glycogen breakdown, and we'll talk about ITM or later in our course as well. Now, our fourth class of conjugated proteins are the chemo proteins, and the Hema proteins have a prosthetic group of just a heem group, which also contains an Iran poor Ferrin molecule, which we'll talk more details about the same group later in our course as well. And examples are myoglobin and, of course, hemoglobin, which they both have heem prosthetic groups. And so we'll talk more again about myoglobin and hemoglobin later on. In our course now, our fifth class of conjugated proteins is going to be our flavor, so proteins and our flavor of proteins have prosthetic groups of just Flavin nucleotides, for example, F. A. D. And so our example of a flavor protein is sucks. Innate di hydrogen ease. And we'll talk about this enzyme or when we talk about the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain later in our course. And then our last class of congregated protein is going to be our metallic oh proteins and our metallic proteins have prosthetic groups of just metals. So what you see here is that we have a bunch of metals listed like, for example, iron zinc, calcium, Molly, Denham, copper. And so all of these medals. Here are examples of prosthetic groups of metallic proteins and examples. Uh, include Farrington alcohol di hydrogen is Cal module in Dina, Dina, nitrogenous and Plast. Oh, scion and and so we'll be talking about different metallic protein throughout our course as well. So again, just try to familiarize yourself with these classes that air here and there, prosthetic groups, and we will talk about these enzymes throughout our course. So this concludes our lesson on the classes of conjugated proteins, and we'll get a little bit of practice and our next video, so I'll see you guys there
Which of the following classes of conjugated proteins does the following protein fall into?