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Review 2: Biosignaling, Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, & PP-Pathway

Practice - Glycolysis 1


Practice - Glycolysis 1

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moving on to glycol Icis If you haven't answered Question 19 yet pause the video now and give it a shot. Alright, Converting one mole of fructose 16 Piss phosphate to two Moles of Piru Bit by guy Kalle ASUs results in two moles of n a. T h and formals of ATP. Now if we started with Glucose and we're too yield two moles of pyro Vape we would actually only make two moles of n a. T. H and two moles of eight p. And the reason is because if we start with glucose, we have to use Thio ATP before we get to fructose 16 This phosphate uh which is why the net result for Glen Collis is's that you make to ATP and two n a d h per molecule of glucose. Here we're starting with fructose 16 piss phosphate which is the product of phosphate for kindness. Now remember, Heck Stickiness The first enzyme of Glen Collis IHS is the first one to spend ATP So it's gonna use ATP and then enzyme number three foster for tackiness also spends ATP to generate fructose 16 piss phosphate Here we're starting with that product. We're starting with the product of phosphor 50 kindness, meaning that we're actually going to be yielding the full formals of ATP. Moving on to question 20 glucose labeled with carbon 14 at the C one and C six positions gives Rives gives rise to Pirate of eight labeled in It's methyl carbon. Now let's take a look at the molecule Piru V Here it is, you might recall, from the numbering exercises that we went through while we're tracing the path of, like Hollis ISS that depending on where this pair of it came from, whether it came from the D. H a P or the G three p after the al Dallas reaction that, uh, this metal carbon here will either be carbon one or carbon six, depending on which one it waas this year will be two or five and this year will be three or four. So So the answer here is that the pair of it will have its methyl carbon. This position we'll have the carbon 14 because that will be carbon one or carbon six from glucose. Now, if glucose was labeled with carbon 14 and the C one position and fed to yeast, carrying out ethanol fermentation. So we're not talking about lactic acid here. Ethanol fermentation! Where is that carbon 14 going to be labeled in the products. All right, so let let's take Pirou of it again. Here's pie, ruby. And in the process of ethanol fermentation, I remove It gets converted. Thio a seat. Aldo Hide, which is this molecule here? So this is Hi Group of eight seat How old I hide. And in this process, it gets D card box. Elated. It loses a CEO to CEO too. So remember, this is one or six. This is two or five and this is three or four. Well, this is what comes off of co two. So the co two is either gonna be carbon three or four from glucose. Meaning that we retain two and five and one and six in a seat alga hide. And that thanks to you n a d that produces ethanol, right? N a d h reduces the seat. Alba hide to ethanol, but it doesn't lose any carbons. So there you go. There's our carbon 16 and our carbon to five. Meaning that the method or C to position of ethanol is gonna have that carbon 14 right? Because this one in six that's referring to the carbon of position one or six from the original glucose molecule in ethanol. This is actually carbon one, and that's carbon to because carbon one is attached to the hydroxyl group, right? So it gets the priority in terms of numbering. So that's why the answer is C two of ethanol or the methyl carbon there because we're talking about this position on ethanol, all right, moving away from carbon numbering because they think we've had enough of that. At this point. The purpose of fermentation and sells is thio regenerate n a D plus, right? Uh, if you are doing fermentation, then that means that there is either no oxygen or not enough oxygen to be putting all of your piru towards cellular respiration. And it means that you need to rely on like Allah assists for a lot of that energy demand. So are, or all of your energy demand, depending on whether or not there's any oxygen present. So the point is, Glen Collis is can't continue indefinitely because it's going thio use up all of the available in a D plus and turn it all into an a d H. Unless there's some process that can convert some of that in a D. H back into an a d plus Glen Collis. This is just going to stop at some point. So the purpose of fermentation is to regenerate N plus. To allow, like Hollis, is to continue looking at Question 23. Which of the following reactions, uh, requires a teepee as a substrate. And looking at these, the answer is hex a kindness, the first reaction of, like Hollis ISS, which is going to take glucose and turn it into glucose six. Boss Fate or Foss Fat If we're being Dutch and it's going to spend an ATP in the process, Thio, phosphor relate that glucose molecule. So looking at the other answer choices protein kindness A is not part of like Hollis is right. That's a trick question. Protein kinda say, does use 80 p as a substrate to false for late. Whatever. It's, um, whatever it's working on, but it's not part of Glen Collis iss, so trick answer there, but Al Dallas doesn't use ATP all. Al Dallas is the enzyme that that takes, um that takes for a that takes fructose 16 Miss phosphate and chops it in half and yields D H a P and G three p. There's no a teepee involved there whatsoever. Pirou Kindness actually, uh, produces a teepee. ATP is a product of Piraeus kindness, not a substrate and glycerol to hide. Three phosphate di hydrogen ISS is the enzyme that takes G three p and phosphor relates it. So this is also kind of a tricky answer choice because you do wind up with 13 best possible blister. Aldo, hide. I'm sorry. 13 this fossil eggless or eight Um so you are adding a phosphate group in the course of this reaction, but it's not coming from a TP. It's actually coming from inorganic phosphate being added on here. So trick question. And this is also just a side note. This is the reaction that produces any D h from any D plus. So again, not right. Answer. Choice. Though D is kind of tricky because that reaction does result in phosphor relation. But it's coming from inorganic phosphate, not ATP. Okay, moving on to 24 24 is the opposite of 23. Which of the following reactions produces a teepee? And we just said that 80 p is a product of Piraeus kindness, right? We just went through all these reactions, so don't need to do it again. The answer here is Peruvian kindness. Which of the following is a key toast to Aldo's isomerization? The answer is triumphs. Phosphate I summaries, and you might recall that trios Phosphate I summaries is the enzyme that converts D H a P into G three p. And it does this by a basically transferring the phosphate group around on the molecule. All right, let's go. And sorry, of course, in the process, the sugar goes from being a key toast to an out Aldo's. All right, let's turn the page.