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Review 2: Biosignaling, Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, & PP-Pathway

Glycolysis 1


Glycolysis 1

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Now let's turn our attention to you like Hollis ISS, which is the process by which glucose is broken down into a ravine and is going to be a nice lead in to the process of cellular respiration, which is what we're going to spend a lot of time focusing on in the next unit. Now, Glucose has a many uses in the cell. You know, we're gonna be focusing on like Hollis is. But don't forget that glucose is converted into glycogen and animals starch and plants on sucrose as well for energy storage. And additionally, glucose can be used for structural features in the extra cellular matrix. And I'm cell wall where it will be converted into various Polly sacha rides. Now it can also be used to form ribose five phosphate B of the pantos phosphate pathway. And we're going to take a look at that little later. Additionally, you know, the main function we're going to focus on is how glucose is turned into piru of it, which is going to be the material used in aerobic cellular respiration. Alright, So let's start by just kind of taking a new overview of like Hollis is we're going to get down into the trenches and look at all the individual reactions. But before we get there, let's take a nice casual look at the whole process. So Glen Collis ISS has two phases. There's the energy investment phase and it's the energy investment phase because we're actually going to spend 80 PC. We're gonna burn to ATP's for the one molecule of glucose. So we're going to invest that energy into it, and then we're going to have the energy payoff phase. And this is where we basically get to collect on that energy investment we made initially. And you can see that we actually generate ATP here, here, here and here. And we're also going to in this process generate n a D h, and this is going thio be used to produce energy in cellular respiration. So we're not actually going to get Thio what any D. H does in this unit? We're gonna talk about it next time, but it does lead to energy production. So you know, we're directly generating ATP here in the energy payoff phase, and we're also generating any n a D H, which will down the line produced some energy, uh, via electron transport and oxidative possible relation topics for next next time. So, uh, before we move on, I also just want thio kind of take a overview of what's happening in Glen Collis is So we start with glucose, which is a six carbon molecules. See, we have six carbons there and then in the energy investment phase, we're going thio add to phosphate groups to this molecule. So actually the first phosphate group gets added immediately as glucose enters the cell. So as soon as glucose enters the cell, it is boss for related. And then if from here glucose can actually, um or the well it's no longer glucose. Now it's glucose six phosphate, But glucose six phosphate can be used for a variety of different things. It doesn't necessarily. It's not necessarily committed to like Hollis Iss. But if it does commit to go like Hollis ISS, then what's gonna happen is we're going to actually add another phosphate group onto it. So that's those are the 2 80 p we're going to spend right there now, at the end of our energy investment phase, we're gonna have this six carbon molecule with two phosphate groups and then we're going to split it right, and we're going to split it into two, three carbon molecules that each have a phosphate group attached to them. Then we enter the energy payoff phase, right? And here we're not going to break down these molecules any further in terms of losing carbons, right? We're going Thio are These molecules are going to stay as three carbon molecules until the end of glycol assist. So the only real breakdown that happens in Glen Collis iss in terms of losing carbons is we go from 16 carbon molecule and we wind up with 23 carbon molecules. Now, we are going to see some changes with those phosphate groups. So, uh, you'll notice that we actually phosphor a late each three carbon molecule again so that we wind up with 23 carbon molecules that have to stake groups attached to them. And then we're actually gonna use both of those phosphate groups to generate ATP by a process called substrate level phosphor elation. And, uh, we're not really gonna talk about, uh, you know, the specifics of substrates level foster relation. That's the name of the process Uh, and the significance of that is going to come up later when we compare it Thio, oxidative foster correlation, which is another process that generates a teepee. But again, that's gonna be next unit. So that's the overview of like, Allah Assists. We start with a six carbon molecule at two phosphates to it, break it in half, then phosphor relate each of those three carbon molecules so that we have 23 carbon molecules with two phosphate groups. And then we're gonna use both of those phosphate groups on that three carbon molecule to generate a teepee. And what we're gonna be left with is this these three carbon molecules called Pirou of eight. So start with one glucose and we end with two pair of eights. All right, let's flip the page and take a look at some of the specific reactions involved.