Review 2: Biosignaling, Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, & PP-Pathway
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let's cover the reactions specific to glucose neurogenesis in the order that they appear in the glue Konia genic pathway. That means that the first reactions we're gonna talk about are actually undoing the reaction from the very end of like Hollis is. So these first two reactions, we're going to talk about our reversing the action of pirouette, kindness or reaction number 10 of like Hollis ISS. And the reason that this actually has to be done in two steps rather than just one is Peruvian kindness. The action of Peruvian kindness is so favorable, right? It cannot be simply undone. In just one step, Pirou kindness takes pep, turns it into pair of it generates an ATP in the process. These two steps that undo the action of pirouette kindness and convert piru of it back into hep Both required energy input in the form of a nuclear side Triphosphate. So Peruvian kindness generates an ATP. These two reactions, they're gonna burn too. Uh, nucleotide triphosphate, Thio, get back to that point of having pep. So the first reaction is carried out by Piru Car Boxley. So this is like our first enzyme of the glue gun eugenic pathway and it's going to take care of it and it's gonna turn it into oxalate acetate, and it's gonna use an eight p to do that. And so we're gonna be left with an A D. P. And this. Actually, this reaction adds a CO two to Pirate of eight. So you'll see here we have our pyro bait, and we're actually gonna add CO two onto our pyro of eight. Uh, the next reaction is carried out by pep car, boxy kindness, and this is going to take that ox alot acetate. And that's a name to remember ox alot. Acetate is definitely a name to remember because it's going to become a very important molecule later in the next unit. When we talk about citric acid cycle, so pep car, boxy kindness is gonna take oxalate acetate, and it's going to turn it into pep and it's gonna burn, or it's gonna use a GTP in the process. I always use the phrase burn because I like to think of it as like using up the energy from the molecule. But I really just mean, you know, break that phosphate bond Thio Harness that the energy released eso this This reaction, um, actually removes the co two that was just put on in the previous reaction. So we add the CO two and then we get rid of it. But in the process we add on a phosphate group, Thio are or well, our Axler acetate, and, um, that leaves us with pep. So we are now back at reaction. The well, sort of the end of reaction nine of Glen Collis ISS. But thistles actually going to be the beginning of reaction. Three of glue Konia, Genesis and again, the reason for that is that reaction 10 of like Hollis is has to be reversed in two steps rather than one. Okay, moving on thio what is reaction three of Glen Collis iss uh which is carried out by phosphate for kindness or P f k one as I am abbreviating it here. So fossil fuck geekiness, you might recall, is going Thio is going to take fructose six phosphate and add another phosphate group onto its going to phosphor related. So the enzyme that's going to reverse the action of P F. K one is fructose 16 phosphate taste right fossil for tackiness is a kindness, right? So it adds phosphate group and here we're using a phosphate taste to remove a phosphate group. So we're going to you take fructose 16 bits phosphate remove phosphate group and we're left with fructose six phosphate. And of course, this is undoing Step three from like Hollis ISS and lastly, undoing the very first reaction of, Like, Hollis ISS. That task is left up Thio, the enzyme glucose six phosphate a. So remember heck sickness. That's the first enzyme of the glide clinic pathway, and it's gonna act on glucose as soon as it enters the cell and phosphor elated again. We're undoing the action of a kindness with a phosphate taste here, and we're simply going to remove that phosphate group from glucose six phosphate and turn it back into glucose. And it's worth noting that this enzyme glucose six phosphate taste is actually Onley present in liver cells. And that's very important because glue konia Genesis is one of the big functions of the liver, actually, and uhh you know, if you get more into anatomy and physiology, you'll see that the liver plays a huge role in maintaining blood sugar levels. Eso It makes sense that Laconia Genesis is one of the main jobs of liver cells. And so it should also make sense that the enzyme needed to sort of complete this process and, uh, and turn our glucose six phosphate into actual glucose, ready to hit the blood stream and be delivered to the cells, tissues that need more glucose, that that enzyme would only be present in liver, where this process is being carried out. All right, So just to recap, we are reversing reactions 10 3 and one of like Allah assists with the four enzymes presented on this page and reaction. 10 of Black Colossus takes two enzymes to actually undo that step. All right, let's flip the page.