in this video, we're going to begin our review or our recap of surfing go lipids. So let's first start by revisiting our lipid map. And so we know that we're currently exploring the fatty acid based lipids. And already in our previous lesson videos, we've covered the glycerol lipids, including try so bliss roles and glycerol fossil lipids as well as the most common variable head groups of these glycerol fossil lipids. And we've also covered this finger lipids, including sting go fossil lipids and single Meilin as well as the spring go glycol lipids, including cerebral sides, global sides and ganglia sides. And so here in this topic were specifically doing a review of this finger OGE like a lipids which would include everything that we see highlighted right here. And so essentially, we're just doing a review of what we have circled right here. And what we have circled here is really just going to show up in our table down below, which we'll talk about in our next lesson video. So I'll see you guys there to do some more review
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and so again, everything that we're going to be talking about in this video is really just review from our previous lesson videos. And so if you're already feeling good on the classes of single lipids, then feel free to skip this video if you like. But if not, stick around because this video might help you guys put everything together. And so again, we're going to be reviewing the different classes of single lipid. So essentially reviewing this branch right here of our lipid map. And so, just like glycerol, Fosca lipids over here are classified according to their variable head groups. Single lipids are also classified according to their variable head groups. And so notice down below. What we have is the structure of a typical single lipid and notice that the variable head group is right here. And so simply by changing the variable head group, we can change the class of single lipid. And not only does the variable head group dictate the structure in the class of the single lipid again, it's also going to dictate the function of the single lipid as well. Now, very similarly to glycerol. Fosca lipids, uh, swing go lipids over here. Uh, they can also vary in their fatty acid length and degree of saturation, so these can vary, or these also varies among the molecules in each class. And so, if we take a look at this table down below again, it's really just gonna be review from our previous lesson videos and notice. We have this finger lipid class here in the first column, and then we have the variable head group. That's associate ID uh, over here in the second column. And so you might recall that CERA minds are practically the simplest type of single lipid, and that's because their variable head group is literally just a hydrogen atom. So you just put a hydrogen atom here and you've got yourself a Serra MyDD And the, um I'd here in the Sara Meid lets you know that the fatty acid in the variable fatty acid here is going to be linked via an AM I'd linkage. And really, that's the most distinct feature of this finger lipid, uh, classes. All the single lipids. Now the next row. What we have here are the bingo Meilin, uh, class of single lipids. And these are you might recall our single phosphor lipids. And so here we're showing you phosphate cooling as the variable head group. And you can see that it has a phosphate group and has this coleene group over here as well On then noticed down below, we're showing you cerebral sides which are a type of single Glick Oh, lipid. And the Glick Oh, here is indicating sugar. So we could go ahead and write sugar here and so you can see that it does indeed have a sugar, just one sugar unit. And for example, here we're showing you glucose ulcer Ribeiro side, which means that it has a glucose residue as the variable head group. And then if we wanted to get a Globo side, what you might notice is not on this table. But if we wanted to get a global side, all we would have to do is add a second sugar residue so multiple sugar residues would give us the global side and so down below. Last but not least, what we have are the ganglia sides, which you might recall, uh, containing complex a LIGO sacha, right? As the variable head group that is going to be branched as we can see here, and it contains a CIA like acid residue and the CIA leak acid residue is typically any you five a. C. And so this year concludes our review off spring go foster lipids and the classes of single foster lipids. And if you take some time to be able to review the lipid map and review this table down below, then you guys should be good on single lipids. And we'll also be able to get some practice applying all of these concepts in the next couple of practice video. So I recommend you guys try those out and I'll see you guys there.
Which of the following is TRUE of sphingolipids?
A) They always contain glycerol and fatty acids.
B) They may be charged, but are never amphipathic.
C) Phosphatidylcholine is a typical sphingolipid.
D) They contain only one esterified variable fatty acid.
E) Cerebrosides, globosides and gangliosides are sphingolipids.
They always contain glycerol and fatty acids.
They may be charged, but are never amphipathic.
Phosphatidylcholine is a typical sphingolipid.
They contain only one esterified variable fatty acid.
Cerebrosides, globosides and gangliosides are sphingolipids.
Sphingolipid Recap Example 1
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All right, so at this point, our courts, we've covered a lot of different types of lipids and introduced a lot of prefixes include English zero, Swango, Foss, Photo and Glencoe. And so I can admit it could be pretty confusing at times. And so here what we have is an example problem that's hopefully gonna help put things in perspective for you guys. And so this example problem wants us to appropriately match each of the following six lipid molecules that we see down below with one of the listed types of lipids that we see here. And so taking a look at this first lipid molecules that we see, uh, one of the first things that you guys should notice about this is that it has a glycerol based backbone. And so here what we have is a platform that is derived from glycerol. Another thing that you guys should notice is that we've got these hydrocarbon chains here, and so these are certainly going to be our fatty acids. And another thing that you guys should note is that these fatty acids are linked to the glycerol via these ester linkages that we see here and so we could go ahead and label these as Astor's. And so what's important to note is that there are actually three fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol molecule. And so we know that this is going to be a glycerol. Oh, lipid. But because there are specifically three fatty acid chains, of course that is going to correspond with the try. And so the try is indicating that there are three. And so, of course, this is going to be a try Aysal, glycerol and so down below, we could go ahead and label this as a try Aysal, glycerol. And then what we can do is go ahead and cross this off our list. So now moving on to this next molecule over here. What we need to realize is that this platform here is not a glycerol based platform. And the reason for that is because notice that we have this trans double bond that is present here and we have this 18 carbon platform and really, this is going to be a finger seen based platform. And so we know that this is going to be some kind of surfing go lipid and another way to recognize that this is a single lipid. Is that notice that this fatty acid chain is actually linked? Not via an Esther linkage. Like what we had over here, It's actually being linked via an M. I'd linkage. And so here, what we can do is label this as an am. I'd and again. That's another way to identify this as not being a glycerol molecule and as being a finger seen molecule. And again, you can see here that there is a phosphate group attached to this finger seen molecule. And so that must mean that this is a single Foss follow lipid. And of course, the Onley single foster lipid that we talked about in our previous lesson videos was finger Oh, myelin. And so here what we have is a phosphor o ethanol Amine Head group. And so what we can do is go ahead and label this as a swing go my own molecule. And then, of course, we can cross it off our list now moving on to the next lipid molecules that we have over here. What we need to recognize is again. What we have here is a glycerol based platform and so this is going to be another glycerol, a lipid. But this time noticed that there is a phosphate group here attached to this glycerol backbone. So we know that this must be a glycerol. Foss photo lipid. And again, we've got these two fatty acid chains in the two fatty acid chains. Notice are linked to the glycerol backbone via Ester linkages once again, and notice that the head group here branching off of this platform here actually does resemble another glycerol molecule that we have over here. And so really, this is another glycerol molecule that is branching off of this glitz. Roaf, Oslo, Lippett. And so what this means is that it must be some kind of glycerol fossil Lippett that has a glycerol in it. And you might recall from our previous lesson videos that Foss fitted date was actually the simplest glycerol fossa, lipid. And so the phosphate tied here is indicating that this is a glycerol fossil lipid. And of course, the ill glycerol is saying that there's a glycerol molecule branching off. And so essentially, what we're saying is that here because we have a glycerol, another glycerol molecule branching off. This must be a phosphate title Glycerol molecule And indeed it ISS. So we can go ahead and label that down below fast for title cholesterol. And then, of course, we can cross this off our list up above. So then moving on to this, lip it over here again. What we need to recognize is looking at this platform that this is not going to be a glycerol platform. Instead, what we can see is that there is a trans double bond here and we've got this carbon amino alcohol once again. So you can see, uh, the am I'd linkage here once again. And so, of course, this means that this is going to be a finger. Oh, seen platform right here. And you can see that the fatty acid chain here is linked via the Ahmad and notice that this time the variable head group does not have a phosphate group like it did previously. The variable head group here is actually a sugar residue, and you might recognize this sugar residue as being a glucose molecule. And so there's Onley. One glucose molecule here, there's only one sugar residue branching off of this finger. Oh, scene uh, platform here. And so because there's only one sugar residue. Of course, this is going to correspond with the cerebral aside from our previous lesson videos, so we can go ahead and label this as a cerebral side, and that's how we identify that one. So now we're down to just two more molecules and looking at this one over here on the left, which will notices again. It has a glycerol based backbone. And so, uh, what you can see is that there are no am I'd linkages. Instead, we have the ester linkages. Once again, we have these fatty acid chains that air connected via the ester linkages. And then we have a phosphate group branching off of the glycerol. So we know again that this is another glycerol Oh, Foss, Fogo Lippett. And so, uh, what you'll note is that the variable head group branching off here kind of looks like in amino acid that has an amino group. It has a car boxing group. It has a central carbon in a central hydrogen. And then this would be the our group and at a closer look if this oxygen right here were ah hydroxyl group, if it were an O H group, then that would be the amino acid searing. And so this is going to be a searing head group here. And so, of course, once we consider that we know that this must be the phosphate title Syrian here again, the phosphate ID is going to be the phosphate to date prefix indicating a glycerol fossil lipid the ills indicating the branching of a searing molecule. And so we could go ahead and label this one down below as a foster phone, fast food title searing. And then, of course, we can cross that one off our list. And we also already, uh, covered cerebral side previously. And so the only one that's left now is linoleic it. And that 1 may not sound familiar to you guys because this is the common name of a fatty acid. And even though we have not yet or even though we did not talk about the common naming system in a lot of detail, clearly this is a fatty acid. You can see that there is a long hydrocarbon chain here and we've got the carb oxalic acid group over here. And so this is indeed gonna be, uh, linoleic eight. And so that is it. This concludes our practice problem here, and hopefully the strategies that we use to determine each of these molecules will be able to help you guys out. And so I'll see you guys in our next video.
Match the following lipid types with the correct description.
A) Fatty acid. _____ 1. Membrane lipids with a glycerol backbone.
B) Triacylglycerol. _____ 2. Phospholipid especially common in nerve cells.
C) Phospholipid. _____ 3. One of the simplest forms of a glycolipid.
D) Sphingosine. _____ 4. Lipids covalently attached to carbohydrate groups.
E) Glycerophospholipid. _____ 5. Chains of hydrogen-bearing carbon atoms with a carboxylic acid.
F) Sphingomyelin. _____ 6. Complex glycolipids with a sialic acid residue.
G) Glycolipid. _____ 7. A complex amino alcohol backbone for membrane lipids.
H) Cerebroside. _____ 8. Major class of membrane lipids.
I) Ganglioside. _____ 9. Long-term storage form of fatty acids.