Pearson+ LogoPearson+ Logo
Start typing, then use the up and down arrows to select an option from the list.

Biochemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Biochemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

12. Biosignaling

Insulin Signaling on Glucose Metabolism

1

concept

Insulin Signaling on Glucose Metabolism

clock
13m
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
So as you guys have probably noticed from our previous lesson videos when it comes to insulin signaling on glucose metabolism, there's quite a lot for you guys to remember. And so how is it that you guys are supposed to remember the most important components and the most important events in the correct order when it comes to insulin RTK signaling on glucose metabolism. Well, that's exactly what this video is all about right here and so here at clutch prep we've come up with a really interesting and unique story to help you guys remember again, the most important components and the most important events in the correct order when it comes to insulin RTK signaling on glucose metabolism. Now the story is not a perfect story. It's not fully bulletproof. But again, it was intentionally designed only to help you guys memorize the most important components and the most important events in the correct order. And so notice up above right here, what we have is an image that shows you the most important components and the most important events of insulin RTK signaling on glucose metabolism. And it's shown in the correct order. Now, notice what we're not showing you here in this image is the insulin receptor and ligand binding to the insulin receptor insulin binding to the insulin receptor. Uh we're not showing you the auto phosphor relation of the insulin receptor. Uh but we did cover all of those things in our previous lesson video. So hopefully those things come naturally to you. And so here we're really just picking up with the insulin receptor substrate or I. R. S. One. And so of course we know from our previous lesson videos that I. R. S. One is going to get foss for elated and activated by the insulin receptor and so upon. I. R. S. One phosphor relation and activation. The S. H. Two domain of the enzyme called phosphor and a cT three canes or P I three K is going to bind to the activated and phosphor related. I. R. S one. And when P I three K binds to I. R. S. One that leads to the activation of P I three K. And pI three K is a keenness. So we know that it's going to phosphor aly its substrate. More specifically, it phosphor relates the substrate pIP two into PIP three. And so pIP three is going to remain membrane bound and laterally diffused and associate itself with PKB or protein kinase B as well as with PDK one or pIP three dependent penis one. Now PDK one when it's bound to pIP three that activates P. D. K one and then pDK one is a kindness that phosphor relates its substrate which is P K. B. And so pDK one phosphor let's pKB and when it phosphor relates PKB PKB is activated and PKB goes on to increase glycogen synthesis. And to increase glute for expression in the membrane and ultimately both of these events leads to decreased blood glucose concentration and so notice down below were numbering the steps of our story steps number one through six. And the numbers here for the steps of our story correspond with the numbers that you see up above in our image as well as the numbers that you see down below in our image. And all of these numbers correspond with the numbers from our previous lesson videos where we first numbered the steps for the insulin signaling on glucose metabolism pathway. And so once again in the very first step of our story, we're going to start with the activation of the I. R. S. One substrate. And so what's a better representation for the I. R. S. One substrate than the I. R. S. Itself? The Internal Revenue Services. And so in the very first step of our story, the Internal Revenue Services or the I. R. S. Is going to be giving the cell a tax refund, basically a little cash influx or a little paycheck if you will. And so the I. R. S. Giving the cell a tax refund is going to represent the activation of the I. R. S. One substrate. And so if we take a look at our image down below, notice here, we have our biological membrane and down below represents the inside of our cell. And over on the left hand side we have the very first step of our pathway where the I. R. S. Or the Internal Revenue Services is going to be providing the cell with a tax refund. a little cash influx or a little paycheck. And so now the cell has some cash in order to buy itself something nice. And so in the second step of our story, the cell is going to decide to buy a pie and it's going to put a fake $3000 label on the pie. And so the pie with the fake $3000 label on it is going to represent the enzyme P. I. Three K. Or the enzyme phosphor three kindness. And so the reason that the cell decides to buy a pie and put a fake three K. Label on it is to be able to prank the evil villain pip. And so you might recall from some of our previous lesson videos, we've already introduced this evil villain pip and our analogies for some of these signaling pathways. And so trust me, this evil villain pip definitely deserves to be pranked. And so the cell buying a pie, putting a fake three K. Label on it in order to prank pip is going to represent the activation of the enzyme P. I. Three K. And so if we take a look at our image down below, which will notice is that here is our pie that the cell decided to buy with the tax refund from the I. R. S. And so notice that this pie has a fake $3000 label on it. And so this pie with the fake $3000 label on it once again represents the enzyme P. I. Three K. And so the reason that the cell decided to buy this pie and put a fake $3000 label on it is to be able to prank the evil villain pip. And so here you can see the evil villain pip who looks like a bank robber and trust me, he definitely deserves to be pranked. And so here pip sees this pie with the $3000 label on it. And again pip is an evil villain. So his natural instinct is to try to undermine undercut undervalue the price of this pie. And so initially when pip sees the pie Uh he's only going to offer $2,000 for a bite of the pie. He's not going to offer the full price. And so what you'll see is in our step three of our story, the evil villain pit is going to use his natural instincts and try to undervalue the price of the pie. So he first offers a price of $2,000 for a bite of the pie. Now, unfortunately that does not work for the cell who's trying to prank this uh evil villain pip. And so pip then agrees to pay $3000 for the pie. And so that is the full price. And so pip first offering $2000 for a bite and then agreeing to pay a full $3000 is going to represent pip to conversion to pIP three by the enzyme P. I three K. And so if we take a look at our image down below notice here we have pip two and this is because pip is offering $2000 for a bite initially, but then pip two is going to get converted into pip three. And so over here we have pip three and this is pip finally coming to his senses and agreeing to pay the full price for this pie. And so what this means is that the prank that the cell is trying to put on pip is actually working and pip has been pranked now in step number four of our story. The bank tellers are actually completely shocked when they finally hear that pip had agreed to pay thousands of dollars for a bite of the pie. And so the paying thousands of dollars for a bite of the pie is going to represent the enzyme PKB or the enzyme protein kinase B. And so what you'll notice is we've got these two bank tellers that are over here and they have overheard this fact that pip had agreed to pay thousands of dollars for a bite of this pie. And so notice that these two bank tellers are gossiping to each other, They're whispering to each other and they're saying, I can't believe pip paid thousands of dollars for a bite. And so again paying thousands of dollars for the bite is going to represent the enzyme PKB. And so these bank tellers represent the enzyme PKB. Now in step number five of our story pip is going to decide to deposit the leftover cash that he has in the bank. And so pip deposits the leftover cash which happens to be $1000. And so pip depositing the $1000 into the bank is going to represent P. D. K. One. And so P. D. K. One is the enzyme pip, three dependent penis one. And so when pip deposits the one K. At the bank, of course this is going to require the help from the bank tellers and the bank tellers once again represent PKB. And so the bank tellers are going to be the ones handling the transaction for pip depositing his $1000. And so pip depositing his $1000 at the bank. And the bank tellers handling the transaction is going to represent PDK one, activating PKB. And so this is going to represent pip three dependent penis one, activating phosphor relating and activating the enzyme protein kinase B. And so if we take a look at our image down below, notice that pip three here is going to come to his senses and he's going to deposit the remaining cash that he has at the bank. And so pip depositing the $1000 of cash that he has remaining at the bank is going to represent P. D. K. One. So the uh the bank and pip depositing his one K. Is going to represent P. D. K. One. And then of course in order for pip to deposit his money at the bank, it is going to require the help from the bank tellers. And so this is going to represent PdK one, activating PKB. And so now in step six of our story, the bank tellers are finally going to deposit pips $1000 into his savings. And so the bank tellers are going to be increasing pips savings. And what you'll notice about savings is that the G. S. Here is being emphasized. And so the G. Es. And savings is supposed to represent the G. S. And glycogen synthesis. And so not only are the bank tellers increasing pip savings by depositing his $1000 they're also going to be increasing glycogen synthesis. And the bank tellers also are going to decide to express order. A gluten free donut. And the gluten free donut is going to represent the transporter glut four. And so if we take a look at our image down below which you'll notice is the bank tellers are going to be depositing the $1,000 of cash that pip deposited. And so here you can see that the cash here that the $1000 of cash is going to represent glucose and it is going into the savings of the pip has. So here you can see pip savings. He's got quite a lot of cash here that represents glycogen. And so again, the individual monomer would be glucose. And then those glucose molecules linked together would create the glycogen. And so what we're seeing here is that this is all going to lead to glycogen synthesis. And you'll also notice that the express order this gluten free donut and then of course this gluten free donut is going to represent glute for. And that is going to represent the glut four expression to help import glucose from the blood and help decrease blood glucose, which is really what uh the insulin signaling pathway on glucose metabolism is all about decreasing the blood glucose concentration. And so this year concludes our crazy story to help you remember the most important components and the most important events of the insulin RTK signaling on glucose metabolism pathway. And so hopefully if you go through this story a few times, it will help you with remembering the most important events and the most important components in the correct order. And we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward. So, I'll see you all in our next video
2

example

Insulin Signaling on Glucose Metabolism Example 1

clock
3m
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
All right. So here we have an example. Problem That says, if you delete the PKB gene from insulin responsive cells, what would you likely observe in Insulin's presence? And we've got these four potential answer options down below. Now, recall from our previous lesson video that PKB is protein kindness be. And depending on your textbook, it may also be referred to as a K T. And so a, K T and PKB are referring to the same exact enzyme. And again, we're looking at a delish in here, uh, in the PKB gene And so notice option A says that p I three k would not be activated if we deleted the PKB gene. And so if we go back up and revisit our pathway here, notice that PKB is this protein that we see right here and again recall that it can also be referred to us a. K t. And so we're talking about a deletion in this the gene that codes for this protein right here and so option a again says that p I three k is not activated, but notice p three k is way over here and really p three k activation does not rely on PKB at all. And so what that means is that P three k, um, would still be activated and p three k not being active, it activated is not something that we would likely observe. And so, for that reason, we can eliminate option A now option B says PDK. One is not activated, but notice that p d k one is over here and again. Pdk one really doesn't rely on PKB to activate it. P d k one is a pip three dependent kindness one. So really it relies on Pip three, which is right here. And so again it says PDK is not activated. But that is not something that we would likely observe an insolence presence. So once again, we can eliminate answer option B So now we're between either answer option C or answer option D and notice. Answer. Option D says phosphate title on a Seattle is cleaved by Foss full like Pacey. But fossil wipe a C is not in this pathway that we see right here. Fossil like Pacey, you might recall, is the effect er enzyme in the phosphate Ganassi tied GPC our signal transaction pathway on DSO. For that reason, this is just the wrong pathway here. So it's not going to apply. And so that must mean that option. See, here is the correct answer. And so, if you delete the PKB gene and insulin responsive cells, we would likely observe an insolence presence that glute four is not going to be expressed and is going to be retained and intracellular vesicles and so notice that if PKB is mutated, PKB will not be able to, uh, phosphor late the enzymes that lead to glute four fusing with the membrane and being expressed. And so the leading the PKB gene will not allow for glue for expression. And so it's going to remain retained, Uh, in the vesicles, the intracellular vesicles. And so that's exactly what answer option see here is referring to so we can go ahead and indicate that. See, here is the correct answer to this practice or to this example problem. And I'll see you guys in our next video
3

concept

Insulin Signaling on Glucose Metabolism

clock
8m
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
So in our last lesson video, we introduced the six steps that air needed an insulin signaling on glucose metabolism. And so here in this video, we're actually going to continue that same exact insulin signaling pathway from our last lesson video. And more specifically, we're going to take a closer look at how insulin signaling actually activates glycogen synthesis. And so what you guys need to know is that there's an enzyme known as glycogen synthesis, which is commonly abbreviated as just G s. And of course, we know that ends in a S e. So it is an enzyme. And if we read this enzyme backwards, it tells us what it does. And so this is an enzyme that synthesizes glycogen. And so that's exactly how we're defining glycogen synthesis or GS as an enzyme that synthesizes glycogen. And of course, when we're referring to glycogen synthesis, we're really just referring to the ability to convert free glucose into glycogen. Now there's also another very important enzyme that you guys need to know called glycogen synthesis. Kindness three or G s K three and so G s K three again is a kindness. And because it's a chi nese. We know that it's going to phosphor await its substrate, and its substrate is actually going to be glycogen synthesis itself, which is again this enzyme that we just introduced up above. And so it's important to note is that usually glycogen sent these kinds three or G s K three is going to be active and so it's going to phosphors late, its substrate glycogen synthesis. However, when G s K three is active and fuss for lates glycogen cintas, it actually ends up an activating glycogen synthesis or G s. And so this is really important because in our previous lesson, videos remember we mentioned that you should never associate phosphor relation with either activation or inactivation. Instead, you should associate phosphor relation with an alteration in activity and whether or not that alteration be an increase in activity or decrease in activity is actually going to be on a case by case basis. It will be different depending on the scenario. And so although and some of our previous videos, we had seen that, uh, Chinese phosphor relation lead to activation here we're seeing that kindness. Phosphor relation is leading to inactivation of gs, and so again. We're saying that usually G s K three will fuss for early and inactivate GSO usually gs glycogen synthesis is inactive. However, when pkb protein kindness be becomes active during insulin signaling on glucose metabolism theatric tive PKB is actually going to fuss for late and inactivate g s k three. And so again, this is pretty much like an activating the n activator G s K three. And when u. N activate An an activator that's pretty much going to allow for the activation of G s. And so essentially, what we're saying is that insulin signaling is going to activate like a synthesis. And so if we take a look at our example image down below, we can see how insulin activates glycogen synthesis. And so notice over here on the right hand side at the top were actually showing you a little snapshot of the same insulin signaling pathway on glycogen synthesis. From our last lesson video. However, we're starting from the point of pip three production just to save us some space here. And so recall from our last lesson video that upon Pip three production pit three would actually laterally diffuse in the membrane and bind to the enzyme protein kindness Be or PKB, which in some of your textbooks is referred to as just a Katie and also recall that Pip three would also laterally diffuse and bind to P. D. K one, which we have over here and that would activate PDK one and pdk. One is a pip three dependent kindness. So it's going toe Foss for late PKB just like what we talked about in our last lesson video. And so notice that we have Step number five and step number six here shaded in this grayish color because these are steps that we already talked about in our last lesson video. So, really, there's nothing new here with step number five and six. Um, And so what you'll see here is that, um, in step number six, it would lead to glue for transport. Um, decreasing blue glucose concentration because the glue for wood been would have been expressed into the plasma membrane. But that's not really the main focus of this video. Instead, notice that we're focusing in on this portion, uh, in this video, and this is the portion that leads to insulin activating like a gin synthesis. And so notice that we're continuing the process here with step 78 and step nine, which corresponds with 789 steps over here on the left hand side. And so again, as we indicated up above, when there is an active PKB such as the one that is right here upon being phosphor related by P. D. K one, the active PKB is going to fuss for Lee and inactivate GS K three and so notice right here in step number seven. What we're saying is that PKB is going to foster for Lee and inhibit G s K three. And so notice that over here on the left hand side with this yellowish border around the purple filled in circle here, what we have is an active G s K three and again, as we indicated up above. In our previous lesson video, the active form of G s K three would actually fuss for Lee and inactivate the enzyme glycogen synthesis, or G s here. And so this represents GS. The yellow border represents the active form and the phosphor related version represents the inactive form So usually G s K three will fuss for late GS and inactivate GS. However, when PKB becomes activated through insulin signaling it will fuss for late G s K three and inactivate G s K three. So this is the inactivated phosphor related GSK three. So now GSK three. When it's phosphor related, it can no longer inhibit GS. And so what this means is that GS is going to become active And the active Gs, of course, is glycogen synthesis is going to do its job of synthesizing glycogen and so it will take free glucose and synthesize glycogen. And so, in step number seven, what we're seeing is that PKB phosphor, lates and inhibits G s K three and step number eight. What we're seeing is that the inactive GSK three right over here can no longer inhibit g s. And when it can no longer inhibit GS GS becomes active. And so the active gs then goes on to synthesize glycogen. And so this here is really the conclusion of our video. And the main take away here is really that insulin signaling ultimately is going to stimulate or activate glycogen synthesis through this pathway, Step 78 and nine that we introduced here in this video. And so this year concludes our lesson on how insulin signaling activates glycogen synthesis by inactivating the in activator G s k three and that here will be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you guys in our next video.
4
Problem

Place the following insulin signaling transduction events in order of occurrence (event 9 is provided).

a) Full activation of PKB/Akt ______.

b) Activated PI3K converts PIP2 to PIP3 ______.

c) GLUT4 expressed in the cell membrane ___9___.

d) Ligand/insulin binding to the insulin receptor ______.

e) GSK3 is phosphorylated & inactivated ______.

f) Activated PDK1 phosphorylates & activates of PKB/Akt ______.

g) IRS-1 is phosphorylated & activated by the insulin receptor ______.

h) Autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor ______.

i) PI3K is activated upon its SH2 domain binding phosphorylated IRS-1 ______.

j) Glycogen synthase converts glucose to glycogen ______.

k) PIP3 molecules laterally diffuse to bind PKB/Akt & PDK1 ______.

Was this helpful?
5

concept

Insulin Signaling on Glucose Metabolism

clock
12m
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
So as you guys have probably noticed from our previous lesson videos. When it comes to insulin signaling on glucose metabolism, there's quite a lot for you guys to remember. And so how is it that you guys were supposed to remember the most important components and the most important events in the correct order when it comes toe insulin rtk signaling on glucose metabolism? Well, that's exactly what this video is all about right here and so here. A clutch prep. We've come up with a really interesting and unique story to help you guys remember again the most important components and the most important events in the correct order when it comes to insulin rtk signaling on glucose metabolism. Now the story is not a perfect story. It's not fully bulletproof, but again it was intentionally designed on Lee to help you guys memorize the most important components in the most important events in the correct order. And so notice up above right here. What we have is an image that shows you the most important components and the most important events of insulin rtk signaling on glucose metabolism, and it's shown in the correct order. Now notice what we're not showing you here in this image is the insulin receptor and ligand binding to the insulin receptor insulin binding to the insulin receptor. We're not showing you the auto fast for relation of the insulin receptor. Uh, but we did cover all of those things in our previous lesson video. So hopefully those things come naturally to you. And so here we're really just picking up with the insulin receptor substrate or i r s. One. And so, of course, we know from our previous lesson videos that I. R s one is going to get fuss for elated and activated by the insulin receptor and so upon iris one phosphor relation and activation, The S H two domain of the enzyme called Foss velocity. Three Chinese or P I three k is going to bind to the activated and phosphor related iris one. And when p three k binds tires, one that leads to the activation of P three K and P three k is a kindness. So we know that it's going too fast for Lee, its substrate. More specifically, it Foster relates the substrate pip to into Pip three. And so Pip three is going to remain membrane bound and laterally defused. An associate itself with PKB or protein kindness be as well as with PDK one or pip three dependent kindness one now P. D. K. One when it is bound to pip three that activates PDK one and then p. D. K one is a kindness that Foss for Leeds. It's substrate, which is PKB. And so pdk one phosphor lates PKB and when it phosphor leads PKB, PKB is activated and PKB goes on to increase glycogen synthesis and to increase glute for expression in the membrane. And ultimately, both of these events leads to decrease blood glucose concentration. If you take a look at our text down below notice that we're numbering each of the steps of our story. And so there are six steps to our story. And of course, the numbers that you see here corresponding with the steps of our story correspond with numbers from our previous lesson videos, where we first introduced insulin signaling on glucose metabolism steps. And of course, the numbers that you see here in our text also corresponds with numbers that you see down below throughout our image. And so the very first step of our story is that the I. R. S is going to get activated. The insulin receptor substrate one. Now in our story, the I. R. S stands for the Internal Revenue Service. And so the Internal Revenue Service is going to give a tax refund to the cell. And so the cell is pretty much getting a nice little paycheck. A nice little cash influx, if you will. And so again, the IRS giving the cell a nice tax refund represents IRS one activation. And so, if we take a look at our image down below notice over here on the left What we have is the i. R. S giving a tax refund a nice little pile of cash here that the Selcan use to spend on something. And so again, the I. R s tax refund represents I rs one activation. And so this leads us to the second step of our story, which is? The cell is going to use that tax refund, that cash influx to buy a pie, and it's going to put a fake three K label on it, a fake $3000 label on it, and the reason for that is to prank the evil villain that we know is Pip. And so the pie with the fake three k label on it represents the enzyme p I three k, which is Fosca Innocent Tied three kindness. And so, really, the cell buying a pie to put a fake three K label on it in order to prank pit represents the activation of the enzyme p I three k. And so, if we take a look down below at our step number two, which is right here, notice that the cell uses this cash influx toe by a pie. Looks like a cherry pie here and the pie the cell goes and puts a fake three K label on it. Fake $3000 label on it. And the reason that the cell does this is again to prank the evil villain that we know is pit. And so notice over here we have a pet. And so again, the pie with the fake three k label on It represents P I three K or phosphate tenacity three. Kinney's And so this leads us to step number three of our story and step number three. This evil villain named Pip, of course, because he's so slick and so sly and evil. He's always trying toe undervalue things, including this pie with the price tag, the fake three K label on it. So he sees, even though Pip sees that three K label on it first because he's so slick and so sly and so evil, he tries to undervalue it, and he offers on Lee to K for a bite. But then, Ultimately, Pip comes to his senses, and he's like, You know what? There's a three K label on it. He doesn't know it's fake, but he sees the 33 K label, and then he just agrees to pay three K for that pie. And so Pip, first offering to K for a bite and then agreeing to pay three K for a bite represents pipped to conversion to Pip three. And so, if we take a look down below at our image, notice that Pip over here. This sly, evil villain is first offering a bite for two K, even though he clearly sees the three K label on it. And so then a ridge. Eventually pit comes to his senses and says, Fine, you know what I'll give them three k for the pie, since there's three k label on it. And so pretty much the cells prank is working on Pip. And so now that we have pipped three here, uh, this leads us to step number four of our story. And in step number four, as you can see in our image down below, the bank tellers are shocked, absolutely shocked when they hear that the prank actually worked on Pip and that Pip actually did pay thousands of dollars for a bite of that pie. And so Pip paying thousands of dollars for a bite represents PKB. And really, the bank tellers are associated with PKB and historic. And so if we take a look down below it are image notice that our bank tellers are right here in this position was step number four. And these bank tellers again are completely shocked that the prank actually worked. And so they're gossiping to each other, saying, You know what? I can't believe pit paid thousands of dollars for a bite. And so again, these bank tellers here represent P k b, the enzyme protein, Chinese B, and so this leads us to step number five and and step number five. Pip decides to take the remainder of his money, which is turns out to be $1000.1 cake. And so Pip decides to take the remainder of his money and deposit that one K at the bank. And so pip depositing one k represents the enzyme pdk one or pip dependent kindness one. However, when Pip goes to deposit that one K at the bank, the bank tellers, of course they're going to be involved and recall the bank tellers are PKB. And so the bank tellers have toe handle the transaction when Pip decides to deposit his one K. And so this here represents where pdk one activates PKB where pdk one activates PKB. And so if we take a look down below it are step number five in our image. Notice that Pip is depositing his remainder of his money, which is one k at the bank. And so this represents P. D. K. One over here. But of course, when Pip decides to deposit his one K at the bank, the bank tellers are going to get involved. And so again, this represents pdk one activating PKB here. Okay. And so again, the the bank tellers air going to handle the transaction when pip deposits is one K. And so this leads us to step number six, which is the final step of our story. And so, in step number six, the bank tellers decide to or the bank tellers that air handling the transaction are going to increase pips savings since their depositing his money into the bank. And so they increase pip savings and increasing the savings. Here, you can see the G s at the end of savings represents glycogen synthesis, increasing glycogen synthesis, and then also the bank tellers decide to express order some gluten free doughnuts. And the gluten free doughnuts here represents glute for expression. And so, if we take a look at our step number six down below, which is right here, notice that the bank tellers have toe handle the transaction for where Pip is depositing his one K. So when they handle that transaction there actually increasing pips savings and so you can see Pip is depositing his cash into his bank and increasing his savings. And this represents glycogen synthesis where glucose is converted into glycogen and Also, the bank tellers decide to express order some gluten free doughnuts over here. And so you can see that embedded in our gluten free donut, we have the glute for transporter. And so this represents glute for expression in our plasma membranes. And so really, this is a really crazy, really silly story. But hopefully, if you guys go over the steps of the story and practice it a couple of times, it will help you remember the most important components in the most important events. Um, of insulin rtk signaling on glucose metabolism and help you put them in the correct order. And so this here concludes our introduction to our story, and we'll be able to get some practice applying what we've learned here, moving forward in our course. So I'll see you guys in our next video.
6

example

Insulin Signaling on Glucose Metabolism Example 2

clock
3m
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
All right. So here we have an example problem that wants us to place the following insulin signal transaction events that we have down below right here in order of occurrence placing event one through to event number eight. And so, of course, after taking a read through each of these events, the very first event that must occur is binding of insulin to the receptor. That's basically like an binding to the receptor. And so we can put that as one here. And then, of course, the binding of the leg and to the receptor is going to allow for the auto phosphor relation of the insulin receptor or the activation of the insulin receptor. And so that will be step number two. And then, of course, recall from our last lesson video that the binding of insulin to the receptor and the activation of the insulin receptor itself was actually not included in our crazy story. To help you guys memorize this specific, uh, pathway. However, we did pick up here with step number three in our story. And so step number three is going to be the phosphor relation of the I. R s. One or the activation of iris one. And so I, r s recall in our story was the Internal Revenue Service, which provided a tax refund or a cash influx. And then, of course, we know that the cell was going to use that cash to buy a pie and then place a three K label on it. And so that reminds us of the activation of p three k. So that will be step number four. And then, of course, Pip is going to see that pie and try to undervalue it. And so that hey only offers to K at first. And so that's pit, too. But then he comes to his senses, and then he decides to pay what's on the label on the actual tag, which is three K. So that is Pip three. And so that reminds us of the conversion of Pip to to pip three. So that's gonna be our step number five here. And then, of course, at that point, Pip is going to decide to deposit the rest of his money into the bank and so pip depositing $1000 into the bank $1000 into the bank reminds us of pdk one So that reminds us of the activation of P D. K one, which is step number six year. And then, of course, uh, Pip can't deposit his money into the bank without the bank tellers, which which are, uh, the protein kindness be. And so that would be full activation of PKB here. And so that would be our step number seven. And then, of course, last but not least, what we have is the final step here, which is that the bank tellers decided to express order some gluten free doughnuts. Or, uh, that eyes gonna be glute for transporter expression in the cell membrane. And so this will here will be step number eight. And so these numbers that you see here in these blanks are really the answers to this example problem that concludes this example. So I'll see you guys in our next video
7
Problem

All of the following are true of the reaction catalyzed by PI3K EXCEPT:

8
Problem

Which of the following results would you predict to occur if a mutation changes a Tyr residue of the Insulin Receptor to Ala?

9
Problem

IRS-1 is an essential adaptor protein in the insulin signaling pathway. If IRS-1 was under expressed in muscle cells, what effect would you expect to see on glycogen synthesis?

Divider