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Biochemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Biochemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

12. Biosignaling

Summary of Biosignaling

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Summary of Biosignaling

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Alright. So here in this video we're going to do a summary of bio signaling by revisiting our map of the lesson on bio signaling which we have down below right here. But notice that this map is a lot more comprehensive than our previous map. And that's because this map is including a lot more images and a lot more memory tools to make this a better summary for you guys. So one of the first things that you'll notice about this map is that it's got these three different colored backgrounds to create these three different types of bio signaling pathways. So we've got this green background over here on the left hand side which represents the bio signaling pathways that utilize G protein coupled receptors or G P C. R. S. And then we have this pink background over here which represents the bio signaling pathways that utilize receptor tyrosine kinase is or R. T. K. S. And then we have this yellow background over here on the right hand side which represents bio signaling pathways that utilize lipid hormones. And so of course we know that when we explore this bio signaling map that we explored the left most branches first. And so we started off talking about G protein coupled receptors or G P C R. S, which we know consists of the G PcR itself, which is the receptor that has seven trans membrane alpha ulysses and associates or couples itself with a hetero try Merrick G protein which contains three different subunits. The alpha beta and gamma subunits. And then we had talked about really to specific types of GPC. Our signal transaction pathways. We had talked about the accidental it cycles GPC, our signal transaction pathway which utilizes the beta energy GPC are. And then we had also talked about the phosphor on a ctg PcR signal transaction pathway, which utilizes the alpha GPC are. And so notice up above here we have the signal transaction pathway for the AD until IT cyclist pathway. And over here on the right we have the signal transaction pathway for the phosphor anesthetized signaling pathway. And so recall with the identikit cyclist signaling pathway that the effect or enzyme that would get activated by the stimulatory G. Protein was a dental it cyclists and cyclists would generate the secondary messenger C. AmP and then cm. Would act as an Alistair activator to the protein kinase A. Or P. K. Which would then generate the cell response. And so when it came to the identikit cyclist, GPC, our signal transaction pathway. We had talked about how a dental it cyclist was symbolized as a car. Our story uh C. AmP was symbolized as the campsite in our story. And PK was symbolized as the parking of the acura. And so hopefully these will help jog your memory of what we talked about in our previous lesson videos. Then we had talked more specifically about the stimulatory pathway when it comes to a desolate cyclist which involved G. S. The stimulatory G protein and we had also talked about the inhibitory pathway which involved the inhibitory G protein G. I. Now the stimulatory pathway we know leads to the production of the secondary messenger CM and CM as acts as an Alistair activator to protein kinase. A or peek a peek a recall exists as a hetero try merrick protein that has two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits and four C. And molecules are required to bind the regulatory subunits to release two catalytic li active PK sub units. So basically we had reviewed this from our previous lesson videos and when we talked about the inhibitory pathway, we had talked about specific drugs and toxins that affect GPC are signaling more specifically cholera which is going to pretty much overstimulate the G. S. Protein, the stimulatory G. Protein leading to the disease cholera which is characterized by extreme diarrhea and dehydration which is why we have this toilet over here. And then we had also talked about the pertussis toxin which acted as the inhibitor that inhibited the inhibitor. Uh and so pertussis would inhibit G. I. The inhibiting G. Protein and that would lead to whooping cough which is why we have this character coughing over here. And then for the fossil GPC, our signal transaction pathway. Recall from our previous lesson videos that the Alpha hero was used to represent the alpha subunit of the hetero time eric G protein and the beta blaster and gamma gadget were used to represent the beta and gamma subunits of the G. Protein respectively. And so recall from our story that the alpha hero sees the evil villain pip and his two weapons. And so pip and his two weapons represent pip two. And the alpha hero needs to alarm the police. And the police is going to be represented by the affect the enzyme fossil like pacey. And so then the police are going to taser pips to weapons to separate them into the two secondary messengers the dagger or D. A. G. And the three ice picks or I. P. Three. Uh And of course I. P. Three uh notice we have its structure over here. Uh D. A. G. Or DSL glycerol. We have its structure here uh and we know I. P. Three would stimulate the release of calcium from the endo plasma critical um or the release uh of Captain marvel issue will from our story and the calcium would associate with cal module in which would then activate other side a solid protein kindnesses. And then the dag part of the uh cleave substrate would ultimately make its way to P. K. C. The packed crowd of Spectators Spectators and activate P. K. C. Along with calcium. And so all of that was uh things that we had talked about in our previous lesson videos for GPC Rs. Now when it came to receptor tyrosine kinase is we talked about how these are receptors that have tyrosine kinase domains that phosphor late tyrosine residues. And we had talked about the insulin and insulin receptor which would generate the I. R. S. One, the insulin receptor substrate um which was active and phosphor related. And then I. R. S. One we know acted as a branch point, which would lead to two different insulin signaling pathways. The insulin RTK signaling on glucose metabolism which involved P I three K. Or the pie with a fake three K label on it, pip three P K. B and P D. K. One. And these would lead to the increase in pip savings or an increase in glycogen synthesis as well as the bank tellers ordering some gluten free donuts or an increase in gluten for expression. And then of course uh we also talked about another insulin RTK signaling pathway as a growth factor. Uh And this would include two other many pathways. The wrasse pathway and the map K pathway. The wrasse pathway involved the cell ordering two orders of grubhub putting some hot sauce on there and ending up getting a rash. And so it involved grb two sauce and wrasse the monem eric G protein. And so here we have a reminder of I got a rash here of our little pneumonic for memorizing that pathway. And then of course when the cell got a rash you would call dr raf who would make something to make uh the working pain go away. And so raf one followed by MEc followed by arc represents the mat K pathway here. And so we've got dr raf and the ark pill here to remind you of those harmonics. Now, after that, we had talked about another variation of the R. T. K. S, which was the jak stat signaling pathway. And really what defined uh these or what differentiated the jak stat pathway from other R. T. K. S, was that it does not have a co violently bound uh tyrosine kinase domain. Instead, it needs to recruit a separate site, a solid tyrosine uh canes, which was Jack. And it also involved the recruitment of the stat transcription factors. And so we had talked about E. P. O. And cytokine being the ligand, Jack being the tyrosine kinase and stat being the transcription factors. And so recall. We had talked about a little pneumonic here, which was that lucky Jack's pig spotted, polka dotted truffles, and that reminded us of the seven steps in the jak stat signaling pathway. And then last but not least, we had talked about lipid hormone signaling. And really the biggest thing, the biggest takeaway of this was that lipid hormones because of their hydrophobic nature are capable of diffusing directly through plasma membranes and having a more direct effect on metabolic responses and gene expression responses. And so this year concludes our summary of bio signaling and we'll be able to get a little bit more practice as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you guys in our next video.
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Problem

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

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