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3. Amino Acids

How to Memorize Amino Acids



Memorizing Amino Acids

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in this video, we're going to consolidate all of the memory tools for memorizing all of the amino acids. So if you're looking for a good strategy to memorize all of the amino acids, I can recommend to things, and the first is to continue to watch clutch prep biochemistry videos. The more you watch, the more you'll get a hang of these memory tools, and the second is to get lots and lots of practice. And so, if you print and fill out this particular page and completed from memory about three times or so, you'll start to get a better hang for the memory tools, the groupings of the amino acids and for memorizing the structures of the art groups themselves. Alright, so let's get started with our first demonic. What we have is gavlin and those air the non polar amino acids. So for the non polar amino acids, the pneumonic is gavlin, where each of these letters represents the one letter code for all of the non polar amino acids. And so the first one that we have is G and G stands for glisten, so we can put the one letter codes above and Kleist scenes are group is so easy that it just glides right on through. It's just one of the easiest ones, so it's literally just the hydrogen Now. The next that we have is Allan E and A. Alan Means One letter code is a and just like a is the first letter of the alphabet, and it's easy to remember Alan needs. Our group is pretty easy to remember because it's just a methyl group. It's just a simple little metal group. So it's just a ch three. And also just like a is the first letter of the alphabet. It's the leader for all of the other letters in the alphabet, and what we'll see is that Allen in really act like a leader to all ah lot of these other amino acid structures, and we can see that already when we go to our next amino acid veiling and so veiling is one letter code is V, and what we'll see is that really veiling is just aligning with a V shape. And so if we draw on Allen S O. C. With an H, we know that the number of hydrogen they're gonna change and it turns out. There's only gonna just be one. But it's just Allen in here with a V shape. And so there's Allan E with the V shape, and that's it. So it's just Allan E. With these two methyl groups coming off of it now, the next one is losing, as you'll see loosens. One letter code is l and L. Losing is really just a loose extension of veiling. So really, you can see how the structures here are building off of one another so veiling built off of Alan. I mean, it's just a V shaped Alunan loosens building off of alien, so losing is a loose extension of veiling. So all you need to do is to make it a loose or extension is just to make the chain a little bit longer. So if we add in a ch two, so we do ch two, then a C H, and then we put in our veiling, then we have our losing, so you can see that losing is literally just veiling. So here's veiling here, just a looser extension of it. So an extra ch two, the next is is a losing and is a loosens one letter code is I So it's just a I and what that means is that is a losing is just an ice, um er of losing. So it has the same number of atoms and types of atoms. They're just arranged in a different way. And the way to remember the arrangement is to just remember, it's just a lopsided veiling. So is a losing is a lopsided veiling. So all we need to do is draw veiling. So there's veiling, and then all we need to do is make it lopsided. Perfect. So that is, is a losing Now the next that we have is meth I annoying and meth Innings. One letter code is M and really meth innings. Our group is shaped like an M. So what we could do is just make that M shape. And then what we know is that at the very end, there's gonna be a metal file group. So meth, I inning when you write it out meth ironing notice that it has the meth part for the methyl group and then it also has the thigh Oh, part for the Thile Group. So it has a metal file and the only way to get the metal file is to put the sulfur in right here in this position. So that is methane in our group and notice that it has an M shape. So it goes up, down, up and kind of right back down. So it's kind of like a sideways looking empty. Now the next that we have is pro lean and pro leans. One letter code is Pete, and really what you'll see is that Pro Ling's our group really looks like the loop of API. And so, just like a P when you draw a P, it has a backbone, and then it has a loop. Well, the amino acid backbone kind of goes like this. I decide. And then the loop goes like this so you can see that, uh, pro leans. Our group is the only one with loops, so that's how it looks. And so, really, it's also you can think of p for Pentagon. So pro lean Pentagon, and it's gonna look like a Pentagon because again it's going to loop back like this. So it looks kind of like a Pentagon and really, all that we're seeing here is that they're all gonna be ch two. So we're gonna have a CH two here. We're gonna have a CH two here, a siege to here, and then it come next back to that nitrogen and again notice that the number of hydrogen on the amino group is one less than all of the other amino acids. So it says NH two here instead of NH three, like all of the other amino acids. And that's because they are group loops, back up and connects to the amino group. And so that's it for all of the non polar amino acids. Let's move on to the aromatic amino acids and the aromatic amino acids. We only have three amino acids, and those are female Alan entire scene and trip to fan and our pneumonic is just fat young whippersnappers. And so, for female Allen in It's one letter code is F and really phenylalanine is trying to tell you what it's our group is. It's literally Allen in with a female group. And so if we draw on Allen and so remember Alan, in appear is just a ch three. We draw on our Alan S O C h. We know the number of hydrogen zehr gonna change. It's gonna end up being just too. But if we draw Allan E with a branching fetal group and remember, a female group is just a benzene ring. There we go. That's final. Allen in structure. The next that we have is tyrosine entire scenes. One letter code is why. And basically tire scene is feeding off of fetal Allen. And so we're seeing the same pattern up here where we see things kind of feedback, words, the structures of feeding backwards. And so tire scene is feeding off of fennel, Allan E. And really, all we need to do to draw a tire seen structure is redraw female Allen. And exactly so we can draw our siege to we can draw in our final group. Okay, so there's phenylalanine and the entire scene is having a hydroxyl group baby. So it's basically just an O. H. Group coming off the bottom, and that's tire scenes are group, and then the last for the aromatic amino acids is W and W. Is for a trip to fan. You put a w appear and trip to fans are group tries to trip you up. But we have these great memory tools. And so remember that trip to Fan is just Al Inning with two joined rings. So let's go. And we know that the the two joint rings there's a five member drink and a six member drink in the six member dring is the benzene, but the benzene goes at the bottom, so we're gonna draw last or the bending goes below. So we're gonna draw last. And so we know it's a trip to Fan is just aligning with two joint rings. So let's draw on Allan E. So Alan and again it's CH three. But we know the number of hydrogen zehr gonna change, and it's gonna end up being just too. And so then we just need to draw our five member drinks. So let's draw our five member drain. Perfect. There's our five member ring Now. The next step is to figure out where does the nitrogen go? Because we know that trip to fan has a nitrogen atom in it, and so to remember where the nitrogen goes you just remember trip to fan trips on a tripod and what that helps you remember, Because a tripod has three legs. That helps you remember that there's gonna be a three carbon start before you actually get to the nitrogen. And so we count on our carbons. Here's one. Here's to here's three. That means our nitrogen must go at this position here. And so let's go back and erase these dots. Put our nitrogen in here. And then once we have our nitrogen in its figuring out, where does the benzene go? And we have to remember that the benzene group or the nitrogen is not part of the benzene group, and the benzene has to be below. So because the benzene has to be below, it can't be on either of these two sides. It can't be joined to the ring on either of those two sides, and it can't be on either of these two sides because the nitrogen would be part of the benzene and the nitrogen cannot be part of the benzene. So then it has to be that side there. So now we just draw in our benzene and there's Arbenz, a perfect and then the very last step is to draw on our double bond, and our double bond does not touch the nitrogen or the benzene. So the only place that could go is here. And then, of course, you fill in the hydrogen is at the very end, and that is it for the structure structure of trip to fan. So now let's move on to our polar amino acids. And there are five polar amino acids in the demonic. To remember them is Santa's team craft new quilts. So the polar amino acids you think about the North Pole? Of course, Santa's there. You think of Santa's team crafting new quilts to stay warm in the winter during Christmas time. And so the first amino acid that we have is s and s remember stands for Syrian. So here we have s searing and searing, just like alcohol is a serious threat. Searing has an alcohol group. And so really all searing is, of course, our leader, Alan, and is coming back into play. So notice that Alan, I mean, is really the leader for the aromatic groups here starting the aromatic. And now we see Alan in as the leader for the polar amino acids. So here's searing. And of course it's gonna be building off of our leader Alan. So it's gonna be a winning, so it's gonna be a ch We know the number of hydrogen they're gonna change. It's gonna end up being too. And then we say, Okay, well, we even though Santa and his team no alcohol is a serious threat, so Syrian and three and then they're gonna have alcohols in them. Uh, they know that they can have it in moderation while they're making these, uh, while they're crafting these new quilts and so weaken put Alan in here within alcohol group, that's all Syrian is is aligning with an alcohol and then three inning is really just building off of Syrians. Uh, groups of three inning is t in. What we're seeing is that it's building off of, uh, Syrians groups. So really, all we need to do to draw 33 inning is kinda redraw, uh, Syrian here and then all three inning has is an extra metal group. It just has an extra metal group. So if we put in a ch three over here, uh, then there's only gonna be one hydrogen. And so what, you can see, this is three means our group and another way to remember 3 18. So it's one letter code is t another way to remember three uneasiness to remember that it has three parts on its Onley carbon. So it's only carbon, which is here in the center has three parts Ah, hydrogen, uh, alcohol group and a metal group. And then our next one is C and C is for Sistine insisting eyes are crafting hammer here, which spends a lot of quiet time in the Sistine Chapel, which is a church. And so any time somebody makes a noise system is always like and so you can remember that Sistine is really just going to be al inning with US group. So it's gonna use our leader Alan ing again. So Alan remembers ch We know that the number of hydrogen they're gonna change it's gonna end up being too. And so it's just a winning with a group or an S h group assault hydro group, and that's it. That's Sistine, argued the next is disparaging and despair genes. One letter code is end. And so the end can help remind you guys of the am I group. And so, just like in N has these two parallel lines here like that that can help remind you of the double bond in the, um, I group. And so disparaging is just gonna be our leader Alan in again, Of course. So it's gonna be Alan in which, of course is just C h. We know the number of hydrogen zehr gonna change. It's gonna end up being too. And then it's going to be our am I group. So it Zainab er see double bond. Oh, and are NH two. And that's it. That is a spare gene structure. So you could see we have our am I group. It's aligning with an AM I group and then our next last polar amino acid is glutamine include a means one letter code is key you, as you can see here. And so with glutamine, it's got that gluten in it. And so it's going to be building off of a spare jeans structure. And so when you have the glute, you're gonna have the extra but section or the extra CH two group. And so all you have to do to draw glutamine is to draw an extra ch two and you'll have glutamine structure. So let's go ahead and draw it. And our ch two we know it's gonna have an extra ch two and then we just draw in our, um I'd and that is it. So you can see we've got our am I'd here and we just got an extra ch two. And so glutamine structure is just that right there. And now we're finally into our final and last our fourth and last group. The charged amino acids and the know Monica's dragons eat nights riding horses. Remember that the dragons eat dragons. Eating things are it's really negative. There's really nothing positive about Dragon trying to eat you. And so dragons eating is a negative thes air, the negative amino acids so D and E stand for a Spartak acid and glue tannic acid, those the acidic ones and remember dragons. They shoot out fire and acid out of their mouth. So these are the acidic amino acids, whereas nights riding horses, which stands for lice in Argentina and hesitating thes air. The positively charged amino acids. Because riding a horse is very noble, very positive. They're coming to save the day and fight the dragon. So it's very positive and, uh, nights do not spit acid out of their mouth, so they're not acidic. They're going to be basic. So for our negatively charged acidic amino acids, the first that we have is deep and D is a Spartak acid. So we can put in a d over here and for a Spartak acid. It's really gonna use our leader again all over. So notice that our leader, Alan I mean, which is up here was used as a leader for final Allan E for searing. And it's gonna be used as a leader again down here for our a Spartak acid. So all the Spartak acid is Allan E. So we will draw on our ch We know the number of hydrogen they're gonna change. It's just gonna be a to and with the Sparta gas, it's gonna have a car box cilic acid. So it will have a C double bond. Oh, and then remember that the car box cilic acid is acidic and it can donate a hydrogen. And when it does that, it becomes Asper Tate. And so let's draw Asper Tate here, which has a negative charge on it. And so what you could see is that we've got our car box Late Group, which is here, and it's just Allan E with a car box like group, and that's it. That's the structure of a Spartak acid or Asper Tate, and the next that we have is glue, tannic acid and again glue tannic acid. One letter code is just e and notice that glue tannic acid is really just building off the structure of a Spartak. Ask because it's got that gluten in it, and the glute just means that it has an extra. CH two has an extra but section, and so all we need to do to drug Luton mix as as the structures to draw on an extra ch two. So here's our CH two. We know it's gonna have an extra one, and then we draw on our Car Box Elite group, and so that is glutamate structure. So remember glue tannic acid. When it loses its hydrogen, it becomes glutamate. So here's our glutamate structure, and it has a a car box, late group and the extra CH two, so notice it has just one extra ch two in comparison to a Spartak acid, and that's it for the negatively charged of civic amino acids. Then we move on to our positively charged basic amino acids, and we have the knights riding horses. So the first one is K and K's. Uh, it stands for the life scene. And just like K stands for a night license, our group looks like a night's ward. And just like a K has four points, he points four pointy parts that you could try to stab somebody with. Like just like with a knife or sword you try to poke somebody with, uh, there are 4.2 points. So 1234 That helps remind us that there are four carbon start to the chain. So we know there's gonna be ch two ch two ch two and ch two. And then at the very end of our four carbon chain, there's going to be in amino group, so it's just gonna be an N H. Three, and we know it's gonna be positively charged, and that's it for the structure of licensing and then for Argentine. What we've been doing is we've been skipping Arjun and go into history and then coming back and completing Argentine last. So let's do the same here. And histamine is one letter code is just h That's one letter code is just h and so remember that history just uses Alan ing all over again. Remember, Alan in is just that c uh c h. And we know the number of hydrogen they're gonna change. So really, all history in is is it's Alan in with a five member ID ring, so we know the hydrogen is gonna change, is gonna end up being too. And then we know it's gonna be a five member drink, So it's just gonna be 12345 So there's our five member bring and then just like the h in history and has two parallel lines. We know that there's going to be two double bonds and to nitrogen atoms. And also just like the H stands for horse history in our group really looks like a sideways horse. So all we need to do is drawn are two double bonds, draw our horse's legs. So here's the back legs. Here's the front legs and then we say, Okay, well, here's the neck, the nitrogen, right, and then the nitrogen is going to have a hydrogen coming off. We know that the neck is the one that's positively charged. So this nitrogen here is gonna be positively charged if we want to, we can draw on a little tail for the back of our horse. And then once we have this, we've got our two double bonds. We've got one nitrogen. We know that there has to be a second nitrogen. So we have to remember, where does that second nitrogen go? And the way to remember that is that the horse does not step on the second nitrogen. So that means that the nitrogen can't go here or here because otherwise the nitrogen Ah, the horse would be stepping on the nitrogen. So then that means that the nitrogen must go here and then all we need to do is just fill in our hydrogen, and that's it for the structure of history. And then, of course, last but not least, is Argentine and Argentine is one letter code is just are. And so it's for the riding. And it's for writing in our, uh, pneumonic and so actually has components of licensing and history in, and so it's got components of the sword and the horse. And because it has components of the sword, we have to count up. How Maney pointy Ends are on the are that we could try to poke somebody with, and so are our has three pointy ends 123 And so that reminds us that there's a three carbon start to our chain, so it's gonna be ch two ch two ch two. Perfect. There's are three carbon Start and then also just like our our has three pointy ends. That reminds us that there's a triangular nitrogen structure at the bottom. So triangular, meaning that there's like three parts. Do it three nitrogen. And so the way this works is there's a nitrogen, there's a carbon, there's another nitrogen, and then there's a double bonded nitrogen over here, and then all you have to do at the end is just filling the hydrogen. So this one has won. This one has to. This one also has to, and it's really this nitrogen here that's gonna be positively charged. So it's the one that has a double bond that's positively charged, and this kind of looks like, ah, person, that's kind of riding, Ah, horse with these two double bonds here, kind of looking like the legs of someone writing the saddle of the horse sideways. And so that's it. That's all the no Monix put together and all of our memory tools, and hopefully you guys will get more practice. Try to print this off a couple times, and you guys will be good and I'll see you guys in our next practice video.

Fill-in the missing R-groups for the following peptide from memory: D-I-F-C-R-Q.

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Which of the 20 standard amino acids can be grouped into the following categories?

a. Contain cyclic/ring structures.                                                     b. Sulfur-containing.

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Fill-in the blanks & R-groups for each of the α-amino acids from memory.

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Match the amino acid to the type of R-group it has:

Leu ____                                   1. Hydroxyl-containing

E ____                                      2. Acidic

K ____                                      3. Basic

Ser ____                                  4. Sulfur-containing

C ____                                     5. Nonpolar aromatic

W ____                                    6. Nonpolar aliphatic

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Name the amino acids that contain each of the following in their R-groups:

a) Hydroxyl group: __________________                      e) Sulfur atom: ­­­­­­­__________________

b) 2nd chiral carbon: __________________                    f) Amino group: __________________

c) Amide group: __________________                          g) Acidic group: __________________

d) Basic group: __________________                           h) Aromatic ring: __________________

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