in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on staffing. Go lipids. Now, before we actually defines finger lipids, let's first revisit our lipid map to make sure everyone's on the same page. And so we know that right now we're currently exploring all of the fatty acid based lipids and so so far in our previous lesson videos, we've already covered glycerol lipids, including try a cell glycerol and glycerol phosphor lipids. And we also talked about different classes of glycerol, fossa lipids as well, including the class that does not have a variable head group, the phosphate to dates. And then we also talked about the other classes of glycerol fossil limits that have these head groups that we see down below. And we know that all of these glycerol fossa lipids here are indeed Foss follow lipids that have a glycerol molecule as the platform. But there are also fossil lipids that don't use glycerol as the platform. And these would be, uh, that's why we have platform to over here. And so now that we've explored the entire glitz row lipids to its end, we're going to zoom out and start our next class of fatty acid based lipids. And these are again thus finger gola lipids. And so, just like glisten are oh, lipids use a glitzy Errol molecule as the platform finger lipids use a single scene molecule as the platform. And so, in our next lesson video, we're going to introduce that's fingers seen molecule. And then after we introduced the singles scene molecule, you can see the direction that we're going to head in. We're going to explain the fossa lipid that uses platform number two and then we'll also explain, uh, this other single lipid type over here is well, and so I'll see you guys in our next lesson video when we explain the swing go seen molecule. So see you guys there.
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in this video, we're going to introduce this finger seen molecule, and so Fingers Scene is an unsaturated 18 carbon amino alcohol group. And so by amino alcohol, it's just saying that it has both an amino group, and it has alcohol groups as well. And so if we take a look down below at the structure of singles scene, which will note is that it indeed has a total of 18 carbon atoms. It also has an amino group right here in this position, and it has an alcohol group over here in this position. And so that's exactly how we defined it up above now. Also note that's fingers scene actually has a trans double bond, and this is unique because recall that most unsaturated fatty acids actually have cysts, double bonds, but again, single scene specifically has a trans double bonds. So that is definitely worth noting. And so notice that the double bond over here is actually in the trans configuration, going on opposite sides of the double bond Now, another thing to note is that's finger seen structure is actually derived from the fatty acid pal mutate and a searing amino acid. And so notice down below. We have this portion here that is specifically from the Syrian molecule, so you can see that the amino group is coming from Syrian structure and then notice that this portion down here is coming specifically from the fatty acid pal mutate. And because it is derived from a fatty acid pal mutate, that means that's finger scene is a fatty, acid based molecule. Now notice specifically, we have carbons 12 and three numbered here, force finger seen structure. And that's because finger scenes carbons 12 and three are actually structurally analogous to glycerol ALS carbons in glycerol fossil lipids. And so you can see that at these positions there is the possibility for an ah fatty acid to be attached here at the C two carbon. And there's also the possibility for a variable head group to be attached here at the C one carbon and so you can see how this has somewhat of a resemblance to glycerol ALS carbon atoms and again, the variable head group acts. Um Finkelstein can be modified to contain different variable head groups, just like glycerol. Fossil lipids can be modified to obtain different variable head groups and so specifically ends finger seen structure, this variable head group here eyes actually going to be a hydrogen atom in finger scene. And so this X here would actually be a hydrogen atom again in finger scenes, actual structure. Now, one thing to note here about fingers seen is that it actually kind of sounds like spring goes scene. And if you think about a spring here and compare it to finger seen structure, uh, you'll kind of notice somewhat of a resemblance. So this part right here that extends out from the backbone, uh, kind of resembles the spring. And then, of course, uh, this portion up here would be, uh, this portion here. And so if you're able to remember, finger scene is kind of like a spring go seen, then hopefully that will also help you remember the shape and the structure of finger scene. So now that we've introduced finger scene and our next lesson video, we'll be able to put all this together and talk more details about surfing go lipids. So I'll see you guys in the next video
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All right, So now that we've introduced the molecules finger seen in this video, we're going to revisits finger lipids. And so stiff ingo lipids, as the name implies, are just lipids that contain a finger. Oh, seen molecule or one of finger scenes? Derivatives. And it contains this finger seen molecule instead of containing a glycerol molecule like what glycerol lipids have now. One thing that's very important to note about single lipids is that they actually Onley have one variable fatty acid that is attached to this finger scene. And so, if you take a look at the image down below, noticed that we have this variable fatty acids shown here in yellow, and so we can go ahead and label this as a variable fatty acid. Now, you might be thinking, Hey, isn't this over here A fatty acid, too? Didn't we say that it was derived from the fatty acid pal mutate in our last lesson video and I would say, Yes, you're right. This is a fatty acid. However, it's not a variable fatty acid because this fatty acid here is constant and it's always going to be in the structure of finger scene and So this fatty acid here is not going to change. And the only variable one is, uh, this one here at the seed to position. And that's a big difference from glycerol lipids, because recall glycerol lipids actually have to variable fatty acids, whereas finger lipids again on lee have one variable fatty acids. And another big difference is that this one variable fatty acid is linked via an AM I'd linkage, and so you can see that this variable fatty acid is linked right here in this position via and am I'd linkage. And again, this is critical, uh, in the structure of single lipids, uh, and also recall that in glycerol lipids that the fatty acids are not linked via am I'd linkages. Instead, they're linked via ester linkages. And so this is definitely a unique feature that you should know the, um I'd linkage here. Now, finger lipids are actually the second most abundant lipids and eukaryotic cell membranes, of course, behind glycerol lipids. And so, if we take a look at our image down below notice, we're zooming into the cells plasma membrane and noticed that most of the cells that we see here in purple are actually the glycerol fastball lipids, but of course, scattered throughout. There are other types lipids like these blue ones. And that's the one that we're zooming into over here, the single lipids so you can find single lipids in the plasma membrane. But of course they're going to be the second most abundant. And of course, as we mentioned in our last lesson video, the variable head group here, uh, can have different chemical groups. And that's going to create different classes of single lipids that we'll talk about later in our course and these variable head groups, they can either be attached via a phosphor oh, digester linkage. Or they could be attached via a Glick acidic linkage. And really, this is what's going to lead to the two different classes of single lipids. That again, we'll talk about moving forward in our course. Now, the last thing that you should note here is that specifically because there is an AM I linkage linking this variable fatty acid that a soon as this am I linkages created, uh, that this molecule is referred to as a Sarah MyDD and you can see the word. Am I in there indicating that the am I'd linkages present. And so, ah, ceremony, I'd molecule is one where this variable head group here is just a hydrogen atom. So there's no head group there. It's just the hydrogen, and so that's important to keep in mind as well. And so this here concludes our introduction to swing go lipids and we'll be able to get some practice applying all of these concepts and our next couple of videos, so I'll see you guys there.
Which component is found in all sphingolipids?
A) A carbohydrate.
B) A negative charge.
C) A phosphate group.
D) An amino alcohol.
E) All the above are found in all sphingolipids.
F) None are found in sphingolipids.
A negative charge.
A phosphate group.
An amino alcohol.
All the above are found in all sphingolipids.
None are found in sphingolipids.
Which of the following is true about sphingolipids?
A) They are all phospholipids.
B) They all contain a carbohydrate backbone.
C) They can have either a phosphodiester or a glycosidic linkage to their polar head group.
D) The all contain a glycerol molecule backbone.
E) None of the above are true.
They are all phospholipids.
They all contain a carbohydrate backbone.
They can have either a phosphodiester or a glycosidic linkage to their polar head group.