we're gonna talk about some relevant cellular organelles, so all cells have organelles, and that includes eukaryotic and pro carry attic cells. And organelles can be thought of as the organs of a cell and all they really are our sub cellular structures or components with specialized functions. And as you guys already know, eukaryotic cells have several membrane bound organelles. Where's pro carry attic cells do not. And so these membrane, these membrane bound organelles, can be grouped together as part of a system known as the Endo Membrane System and the men Endo Membrane system functions include modifying, transporting and secrete ing cellular materials, and recall that's accreting just means to release into the environment. And so let's take a look at our example below. And at the bottom of the diagram, there's a plasma membrane separating the outside of the cell from the inside of the cell and inside of the cell. We have this big purple structure that everybody knows is the nucleus and inside of the nucleus. We have the DNA, and so the functions of the nucleus includes storing and protecting the DNA, and the nucleus has a membrane that's known as the nuclear envelope, and the nuclear envelope has these structures in it called nuclear pores that controls the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus. And so extending off of the nuclear envelope is the Endo plasma critical Um, which can be abbreviated as E. R. And so recall there are actually two types of ers. The first is the rough ER, which is externally studded with ribosomes, and the ribosomes are shown as these brown dots. So there are a bunch of brown dots that are on the exterior surface of the rough E r. And the rough er functions include assisting a protein take its three D shape as well as modifying the protein. And so the other type of ER recalls the smooth er, which does not have ribs. Um, studied on its surface, and there's some shown over here, as well as some over here and the smooth ER functions include detoxifying a cell from alcohols and chemicals, as well as making carbohydrates and lipids. Now, over here in this teal colored structure, we have the Golgi apparatus, which recall functions include, uh, modifying and tagging proteins and lipids that it receives as well as packaging and shipping these proteins and lipids to their final destinations, either within the cell or out to the plasma membrane so that those materials are secreted. And so that leads us to our next organ, Al, which is the plasma membrane. And so we've talked about this organ I'll in our previous videos, and we know that it acts as a barrier and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell. And so we also have these structures called vesicles and vesicles are essentially membrane bubbles that store and transport materials. And so you can see there are a bunch of vesicles throughout the South, and vesicles have the ability to butt off so we can see over here there's a vesicles budding off from the E. R. And the vesicles also have the ability to fuse. And so here we have a vesicles fusing with Golgi apparatus and a vesicles over here fusing with the plasma membrane. And so some vesicles are specialized vesicles known as license soames. And so over here we have a license, um, shown in purple and these air vesicles that contain digestive enzymes that break down foreign particles or recycle materials within the South. And so these organelles could show up at different points throughout our biochemistry course. So it's good to touch up on them a little bit now. In our next video, we're going to talk about ribosomes, so I'll see you guys in that video.
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
So you guys already know that all cells contain riva zones and ribosomes are structures that are directly involved in the process of translation and recall that translation is simply the process of protein synthesis or the process of building a protein using RNA and a single ribs. Um, actually has two different subunits. The first is a large Ryba zonal sub unit and the second is a small ribosomes sub unit, and ribosomes are actually a big mixture of several components. They're a mixture of several different Arribas omo RNA molecules, or are RNA molecules as well as a mixture of several different protein molecules. And we already know that you carry attic and pro carry out of ribs owns differ. Eukaryotic ribosomes are larger 80 s ribosomes, with the 60 s large sub unit and 1/40 small sub unit and pro carry attic ribosomes are smaller 70 s ribosomes with a 50 s large sub unit and 1/30 small sub unit. So you might be thinking, How am I supposed to memorize all these sub units? And I could tell you what helps me is the list the multiples of 10 from 30 up until 80 And so when we do that, notice that the first two that air listed here are the small sub units. The next to that air listed are the large sub units. And then the last two that air listed are the completely intact ribosomes. And so for the eukaryotic components, they're always the larger number in each set. And the pro carry attic is always the smaller number in each set. And so if we look at our example below, what we'll see is that ribosomes are indeed involved in the process of translation. There is a protein being synthesized using RNA as a template. And so when we look at our block over here on the right, we see that we have the Eukaryotic Rib Zone, which again consists of two different sub units, a large and a small sub unit. And when they're complex together, when it's completely intact, it creates an 80 s sub unit. When the larges, separate and independent, it's a 60 s sub unit and when the small is independent and separate, it's a 40 s sub unit. Now for the pro carry attic Rob zone, we have the same deal. We have a large and a small sub unit. Now, overall, this Rob's, um, is much smaller. So when it's completely intact, it's a 70 s rivals normal sub unit. When the largest separated out, it's a 50 s sub unit, and when the smallest separated out, it's a 30 s sub unit. And so it's important toe memorize these sub units because they're gonna come into play later on in our course. And so in the next video, we're gonna talk about the cells sido skeleton, so I'll see you guys in that video.
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
in this video, we're gonna do a quick recap on the side, a skeleton and recall that it consists of acting and intermediate filaments as well as micro tubules. And you can think of the side of skeleton as the skeleton of a cell because it projects throughout the entire cell and it gives the sell its overall shape. And it's a predominant component of specific cell structures such as flu, Gela and cilia that allow a cell tow move through its environment. And it's also important for the transportation of materials inside of the cell. And because it can respond to specific factors on the outside of the cell, it can be involved in signaling and so notice below. In the diagram, we have the act and filaments down below, which are also known as micro filaments, and these are the smallest of the three. We have intermediate filaments up above here, which are intermediate in size, and we have micro tubules, or turbulent, which is shown in the middle here, and they are the largest of the three, and so notice that the intermediate filaments are projected throughout the entire cell. The micro tubules are projected through certain points of the cell, and the micro filaments are usually found on the perimeter of the cell. And we could see that over here in this diagram as well, where the intermediate filaments are projected throughout the entire cell, the micro filaments or the acting are found on the perimeter of the cell and the micro tubules or the tube. Yellen are found projected through specific points of the cell and recall that the micro tubules are very important for nuclear division of you carry outs or might oh, sis. And so over here, what we have is an image that shows you what, uh, these components look like under a microscope. And so scientists can stain these different components. And the blue represents the nucleus. The green represents micro tubules, and the red represents intermediate filaments. And so the last thing I wanna leave you guys with is that thes orange structures over here are the mitochondria, and mitochondria and chloroplasts are both very relevant organelles. But we're going to talk about them in some of our later videos when we talk about the topic of the Indo symbiotic theory. And so this concludes our lesson outside of skeleton and I'll see you guys in the practice videos
Which of the following contains an incorrect match of the organelle function/description?