in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on glycerol phosphor A lipids. Now, before we actually define glycerol phosphor lipids, it would be helpful. Toe first, define the more generalized class of just phosphor a lipids, which you could actually see. Phosphor lipids is embedded in the word glycerol, phosphor lipids and so phosphor. Oh, lipids are again a generalized class of lipids, so they're going to be a large class of lipids that are going to include lots of different molecules. But as the name implies, Foss follow lipids are literally just lipids themselves that contain at least one phosphate group. And foster lipids are a major component of all cell membranes, and later in our course, we're going to talk a lot more details about cell membranes, and so that's important to keep in mind. Fossil lipids, a major component, also membranes. Now we know that fossil lipids are fatty acid base lipids because fossil lipids contain at least one fatty acid molecule that's going to be linked to again. Ah Foss for elated platform molecule. And so, if we take a look at our image down below at our fossil Lippett over here, notice that We have a platform molecule here, and this is a fox for elated platform molecule because you can see the phosphate group attached to the platform molecule. And again, you can tell that fossil lipids are indeed fatty acid base because they have at least one fatty acid chain. And here we are showing to fatty acid chains. But really, they just need at least one fatty acid chain. And again, this platform molecule could be a different can be different molecules. And so, if the phosphor related platform molecule is a glycerol molecule, then it would be considered a glitzy Arrgh, phosphor, a lipid. And so you can see that by changing the platform specifically to a glycerol molecule like this one right here, then what we'll get is a glitzy row phosphor, a lipid, which we'll talk a lot more details about in our next lesson video, but also noticed that the platform molecule could be something else other than a glycerol molecule. It could be a different molecule that we're just going to label as platform number two for now until we get to this later in our course. But keep in mind that we can get different foster lipids just by changing the platform molecule. And again, we're going to focus on the glycerol platform molecule here and talk about glycerol fossil lipids in our next video. So I'll see you guys there.
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
All right, So in this video, we're going to focus specifically on glycerol Fosca lipids. And if we take a look at our lipid map, weaken better orient ourselves on where we are. And so we know that we're exploring the fatty acid based lipids first and already in our previous lesson videos, we've covered glycerol, lipids and the tricycle, glycerol, ALS. And so in this video we're going to focus on another type of glycerol. Lipid. The glycerol Foss follow lipids, which we already mentioned in our last lesson video are just a type of fossa lipid that uses a glycerol molecule as the platform. However, we also know that there are other types of fossil lipids that use other molecules as the platforms such as platform number two over here, which we'll talk, Maura, about what? That is. Later in our course. For now, we're going to focus on the glitz row fossil lipids and so glycerol. Oh, Foss follow lipids actually have several different synonyms. They're commonly referred to as Foss, Foege, Lyssarides, and occasionally you'll also see them referred to as fast So Essel, glycerol, ALS and so glycerol. Fazio, Lipids, Foss, Vogue, Lyssarides and Foster USL glycerol czar all practically synonyms of each other. But if you break down the roots of these words and compare them, you'll notice that all of them have a phosphor, oh prefix to indicate that they are phosphor lipids. And they all have some kind of glitch siro or glycerol or glycerol route to indicate that they are also glycerol lipids and have a glycerol molecule. And so when you compare them in this way, it's pretty easy to see that they are synonyms of each other. Now when it comes down to it, glycerol lipids are defined as lipids with a glycerol three phosphate group, and they're going to be attached specifically to to fatty acid chains. And so if we take a look at our image down below here in this box, notice Over here on the far left, we're zooming into a cells membrane here. So we know that fossa lipids are a major component of the cell membrane. And if we zoom in on one of these fossa lipids here, we can take a closer look at the glitz Roaf Oslo lipid, which notice has a glycerol molecule as the platform, which is a three carbon molecule and notice that instead of having three fatty acid chains, it only has to fatty acid chains here and the third Carbon instead of being linked to another fatty acid chains like Try So cholesterols. It's linked to a phosphate group, And so because it has the glycerol and the phosphate group, that's why we have the glitz Rafa so prefix. And it's clear to see again that these are fatty acid based lip. It's because they have the fatty acid chains. Now. One thing to note here is that this phosphate group can actually be foster O dia StarLink to this X group over here that we're calling the Variable Head Group. And so this X Group is the variable head group and so up above in our lesson, we're saying that a phosphor oh digester linkage can actually attach other variable head groups, or X, and this variable head Group X could be many different groups. And these groups are usually polar molecules. And so if you have a variable head group here that tends to be polar, uh, then what you end up getting is ah polar group up here and non polar groups down here with these hydrocarbon chains. And then that means that you're gonna end up having an AM fee path, IQ molecule. And so glycerol fossa lipids are an pepe thick, and that is partially what makes them so suitable for biological membranes. And so it turns out that glycerol fossil lipids are actually the major, uh, fossil lipid in the cell membranes. And so if you were to pick a foster lipid randomly from a cell membrane, the likelihood is that it's going to be a glycerol foster lipid. So this is the classic fastball lipid, if you will. And so it turns out that by changing this variable head group, you can actually get different types of glycerol, Fosca lipids. And so, in our next lesson video, we're gonna be able to talk about some of those different types of glycerol, fossil lipids and those different variable head groups. So I'll see you guys in that video
Play a video:
Was this helpful?
All right, So in this video, we're going to talk about the classes of Glycerol Foss follow lipids. And so, as we mentioned in our last lesson, video glycerol foster lipids are actually classified based on the variable head group that they have and so down below notice what we have is the same glycerol fossil lipid structure from our last lesson video and noticed that the variable head group is represented as X here in our structure. And so just by simply changing what this variable head group is, you can change the class of glycerol, fossa, lipid and so really, it's all about this variable head group and these different variable head groups. Not only do they dictate the structure and the class of the glycerol fossil lipid, but they also are going to dictate the function of the glycerol Fosca lipid. And so we're not going to get into all the details of all of the different functions that these classes of glycerol fossil limits have. But as we move along through our course, we are going to talk about some of their functions Now. Another important thing to note is that within each class of glycerol fossa lipin. The fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can actually vary Ah, between molecules of each class and so again, these fatty acid chains that are attached. They can vary in their length or the number of carbon atoms, and they can vary in their degree of saturation, creating different molecules within each class that you see down below. Now, one thing to note is that the actual classes of glycerol fossil lipids that you're going to need to know is going to depend on your professor. And so it's possible that maybe you guys don't need to know any of these glycerol fossil Olympic classes. But if you do need to know any classes of glycerol fossil lipids, the chances are that they're the ones that you need to know are in this table that you see down below and so notice that in this table down below, what we have is the glycerol foster, a lipid class in the first column and then the variable head group that, um defines that glycerol fossil lipid class. And so one thing that's important to note is that if there is no variable head group here and the phosphate group here is actually deep protein ated with a negative charge. Then this molecule is going to be a glycerol fossil lipid called a phosphate to date. And that's the first class that we have in our table down below. And so the foster today, you could pretty much think of it as the simplest glycerol fossil lipid because it doesn't actually have a variable head group. It's literally going to be found in the d protein ated form with a again, a negative charge on the phosphate group. And so you can think of phosphate today. It's as being pretty much like the backbone for all of the other glycerol phosphor lipid classes. And so, whenever you have a variable head group branching off of a backbone, the Suffolk's why L you might recall from your organic chemistry courses is used to indicate things that are branching off. And so one of the things that you'll note is that a lot of these classes down below have this phosphate to date type of prefix. But then they also include the Why Ellen there to indicate the branching off of that backbone, and so you'll notice that you'll see this phosphate title prefix in so many different classes here of this of these glycerol fossil lipid classes. You'll see this fossil title prefix and so notice that in our map here, when we zoom in on glitz Roaf, Oslo lipids notice that branching off of it we have phosphate to dates which again, we said, is the simplest class of glycerol fossil lipids because they don't have a variable head group, they are completely deep protein ated. And so again, if you add the Y el prefix to the foster today, then you can branch off all of these different variable head groups that you see down below. And these variable head groups that you see here create all of the classes that you see down below the glycerol fossil lipid classes. And so again, the exact glycerol fast Olympic classes that you guys are responsible for knowing is going to depend on your professor. And so make sure to double check with your professors about which ones you should know specifically. But notice that we do have a star here, right next to foster a title cooling and the reason that we have this star here next to foster title. Cooling is because this class of glycerol fossil lipid is actually the one that is most common in all cell membranes. And so this is pretty much the prototype. This is the one that is most abundant in cell membranes, and so you can see that we've color coded the green words here to show exactly what thieve Ari a ble head group will be. And so, in fossil title cooling, the variable head group is cooling, which is this molecule that you see right here. And so some of these, uh, variable head groups you should actually recognize such a searing. This is literally the amino acid Syrian branching off glycerol literally has a glycerol molecule branching off and again some of these we have not yet talked about. But again, it's going to depend on your professors which ones you're specifically going to need to know. But these are the most common classes of glycerol fossil lipids. And again, um, we'll be able to get some practice applying the concepts that we've learned here in our next couple of videos. So I'll see you guys there
A certain glycerophospholipid is made of glycerol, two fatty acids, and ethanolamine. What components does the carboxylic ester linkage connect?
a) Phosphate and ethanolamine.
b) Glycerol and fatty acids.
c) Fatty acids and phosphate.
d) Glycerol and ethanolamine.
e) There are no ester linkages is the glycerophospholipid.
Phosphate and ethanolamine.
Glycerol and fatty acids.
Fatty acids and phosphate.
Glycerol and ethanolamine.
There are no ester linkages is the glycerophospholipid.
Phosphatidate is a glycerophospholipid formed from:
a) Glycerol-3-phosphate and two fatty acid chains.
b) Glycerol-3-phosphate and two free fatty acids.
c) Glycerol and two fatty acid chains.
d) Pyruvate and triacylglycerol.
Glycerol-3-phosphate and two fatty acid chains.
Glycerol-3-phosphate and two free fatty acids.
Glycerol and two fatty acid chains.
Pyruvate and triacylglycerol.
Which of the following is not a common headgroup of glycerophospholipids?
d) Hydrogen atom
Which of the following is a major component of a cell’s plasma membrane?
e) Lipid Vitamins.
What is the name of the glycerophospholipid shown below?