in this video, we're going to begin talking about some of the most common types of mono sacha rides, so you'll notice listed on this entire page. We have some of the most common mono sacha rides in nature, grouped as being all doses and or ketosis and based on how many carbon atoms that they have. And so, really, this page is just meant to be a reference page to help you guys out as you move forward through our course. And it's important to note that the mono sacha rides that your professors might expect you guys to memorize are gonna vary from course. To course, however, if your professor does want you to memorize any mono sack rides, the likelihood is that they're somewhere on this page. And so again, it's just meant to be a reference page to help you guys out. And so what you'll notice is for the AL doses. What we have listed are dig lesser Aldo Hi di Ary throws D ribose. De Ravin owes DiCillo's D glucose de manos and dig lactose, and for the key, Tose is down below. What we have are die hydroxy acetone or D J. D ary through Clos de Rib Bulus, Diesel Owes and De Frutos. And so again, this pages on Lee meant to be a reference page toe, help you guys out as you move along through the course. And so in our next video, I'll give you guys a recommendation of which amino acids I would recommend committing to memory. And so I'll see you guys in that next video.
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So in this video we're going to talk about some monos, aka ride structures that might be worth memorizing. And so it's important to note that the mono sack ride structures that are worth memorizing are going to vary from course to course and from professor to professor. And so some professors might not expect you to memorize any mono sacha rides at all. Whereas other professors might expect you to memorize these six mono sacha rides and some additional wants, however, these six mono sack ride show Down below are definitely some of the common ones. And so if you're professor does want you to memorize any mono sacha ride structures, the likelihood is that they're going to include these six mono sacha rides down below. And so we're going to do our part here, a clutch prep and help you guys with memorizing these six mono sack rides. Now it's important to note that these six mono sack rights are all in their linear forms, and they all have the D configuration, which is really no surprise, since we know that life has a preference for the D configuration of mono sack rides. Alright, so let's get started with this mano sacha ride way over here on the left hand side. And so it turns out that this mano sack ride is actually the most common and the most abundant mono sacha ride in all of nature. And we've actually already talked a lot about this mano sacha ride in our previous lesson videos and moving forward, we're going to continue to talk a lot about this mano sacha ride. And so if you haven't already guessed it, this is the mono Sacha ride d glucose. Now D glucose is an Aldo Heche sauce, which means that it has an alga hide group and it has a total of six carbon atoms. And if we wanted to number these carbon atoms, of course, we know that the carbon atom that's part of this alga hide group at the top must be assigned the lowest possible number, which means that this carbon atom is going to be carbon number one and then weaken sequentially. Number all of the other carbon atoms from top to bottom. Now notice that carbons 234 and five are all Cairo carbons and notice that the alcohol groups on these Cairo carbons are taking the following pattern that we see here. And so notice that the sea to alcohol group is going to the right hand side with a D configuration. The C three alcohol group is going to the left hand side with an L configuration and then the C four and the C five alcohol groups are both going to the right hand side with D configurations. So glucose is alcohol. Groups end up taking the following pattern that we see right here. Now, wait a second. Do you guys see that? It kind of looks like D glucose might be trying to tell me something here with this pattern of alcohol groups, It kind of looks like it's trying to give me the finger. Now, as much as I don't appreciate that, you got to recognize this pattern here when you see it. And at the very least, there is quite a resemblance between these two images right here and so, as unfortunate as it might be, thinking about somebody flicking someone off might actually help you guys with memorizing glucose structures. So memorizing glucose structure is going to be important because we're actually going to use glucose as a reference for memorizing the other heck sources on this page. And so the next Manno sack ride that we have here is actually de manos and d manos is another Aldo Hex owes that's gonna be numbered in the same exact way as glucose. And so what helps me remember Demon Noses structure is that it's actually spelled with two ends. And so this helps me remember that it's actually going to be the sea to a Palmer of Glucose, again referring back to the structure. And so what this means is that everything and demand hosted structure is gonna be identical to glucose from the C three carbon down. And so that means that it's C three hydroxyl is still pointing to the left, and it's C four and C five hydroxyl zehr still pointing to the right. And again, The Onley thing that's gonna differ is that this is the C two f primer. And so it's on Lee gonna be the configuration of the C two that changes. And so instead of pointing to the right like what it did over here with glucose, it's going to be pointing to the left and so we could go ahead and fill that. And really, that's it for the structure of manos. Now, the next hexes that we have here is actually the structure of D galactus owes. And so D galactus is another Aldo Texas that's gonna be numbered again in the same exact way as glucose and manos. And so what helps me remember dig lactose structure is that it's actually got these four vowels in it. And so this reminds me that this is going to be the C four FM er of glucose. Now, another way to help you remember d galactus the structure is that Diggle Actos kind of sounds like a galactic ship, a rocket ship. And so those of you that play call of duty know that, See, fours are explosives, and so you could think that the C four is the explosive that allows the galactic rocket ship to take off. And so hopefully that I hope you guys remember that Galactus is the C four, a palmer of glucose. And so what that means is that everything else is gonna be identical to glucose except for the C four. And so that means that the C five hydroxyl group is still going to the right. Uh, the C three hydroxyl is still going to the left, and the sea to hydroxyl is still going to the right eso these air all the same as glucose. And again, the only thing that's gonna be different is the C four component, the C four FM. And so instead of going to the right hand side like it did for glucose, it's gonna be going to the left hand side. And really, that's it for the structure of glucose. Now the next mono saturated that we have here is D for Ruto's and So de Frutos is actually a key toe heche sauce, which means that it has a key tone group instead of an alga hide group at the top. But it's still gonna be numbered from top to bottom here on this page, since that's what allows the key tone group to be assigned the lowest possible number. Now, what helps me remember d fructose is that it's really the on Li ke tone on this entire page. And so this helps me remember that is gonna be the key toast form of glucose. And so you could also think a fruit tone. And so, uh, if you think of fruit tone because there's a key tone group that will also help you remember De frutos the structure. And really all we need to Dio is take the alga High Group converted to a C H 20 H group and then add a key tone group on the second carbon and then everything else from the C three carbon down is exactly the same as it appears in glucose. So C three hydroxy was still going to the left and C four and C five hydroxyl. They're still going to the right and that is it for fructose. Now moving on notice that these next two mono sacha rides are actually Aldo pen toeses, meaning that they only have five carbon atoms and they're both going to be numbered from top to bottom. So there's only five carbon atoms. Now notice that for this one right here, this is gonna be the structure of D ribose and so d ribose the structures are right to memorize. And what I mean by that is that literally d ribose they are in the ribose. Reminds me that it's all right to memorize it's not so bad. It's all right. And so that reminds me that all of the hydroxyl groups on all of its Cairo carbons are going to be pointing to the right hand side so we can go ahead and fill all of those in here. And that's really it for D ribose structure. It's all right to memorize now. The last but not least that we have here is gonna be D d oxy ribose, and what you'll notice is the only difference between D. Ribose and D Deoxyribonucleic is just the d Oxy part. And so the D Oxy part is actually meaning one less oxygen. And so notice that this structure here has one less oxygen than ribose. The structure and really all we need to do is take this oxygen atom that's right here and just pluck it out. And if we remove that, what we get is D oxy ribose structure. And so really, this is it for memorizing these mono sacha ride structures and by practicing these a few times and using these memory tools, hopefully you guys will be good on memorizing these common ones. And so that concludes this video, and I'll see you guys in our next one
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all right. So now that we've talked about how to memorize the linear forms of the most common mono Sacha rides in this video, we're going to talk about how we can use those linear forms of the sugars to derive their cyclic forms. And so notice down below. We have all of the Hayworth projections for each of the six sugars that we talked about in our last lesson video. And so really, the skill of converting of Fisher projection for a linear mono sacha ride into the Hayworth projection of a cyclic mono sacha ride is a skill that we already talked about before in our previous lesson videos. And so recall that we only need to remember the two words up left ing and down, right? And so recall that all of the chemical groups pointing to the left of official projection end up pointing upwards in the Hayworth projection. And all of the chemical groups, pointing to the right of official projection, end up pointing downwards in the Hayworth projection. And so this ends up being the key that allows us to use the linear forms of the sugars from our last lesson video to derive their cyclic forms in this lesson video and another helpful tools actually to number all of the carbon atoms so that we can keep track of those carbon atoms Easier. Now, In our last lesson video, we already numbered all of the carbon atoms of the linear form. So all we need to do is number the carbon atoms of the cyclic forms down below, which means that we want to assign the lowest possible number two the an American carbon. And so I'll go ahead and help you guys out for all of the sugars on this page, The animator carbon is the carbon atom that's furthest to the right of the Hayworth projection. So we're circling all of the animal carbons and then we want to assign the lowest possible number. So for this sugar appear, it will be number one for the sugar. Over here will be number one. This one here will also be number one. But notice that for this sugar over here, we cannot assign it number one, because that would be skipping out on this carbon atom up above. And so instead, we give this carbon atom of above number one and this carbon atom right here. Number two, which allows it to be assigned the lowest possible number. And then for this sugar and this sugar down below both and America carbons will be assigned number one. And then, of course, the highest number. Carbon is going to be pointing upwards and all of these sugars that we see here and notice that this sugar and this sugar down below on Lee have a total of five carbon atoms. So the highest number carbon will be a sign number five. And so what we're gonna do is we're going to derive the first two cyclic sugars using the linear forms of the sugars up above. And then we're going to pause the video and allow you guys to attempt arriving the rest of the sugars before we give you the answers. And so we're starting off with beta d glucose piranhas over here. And the first thing that you see is the beta, which is referring to the configuration of the America carbon and because the bumps of the beta on the same side That reminds us that the highest number of carbon and the alcohol group of the an American carbon are gonna be pointing to the same side of the Hayworth projection. And so that means that we expect the alcohol group to be pointing upwards here at this position. And then we could go ahead and number all of the other carbon atoms going around here. And so we want to focus in on carbons 23 and four here, and notice that the glucose prefix here is telling us that this sugars derived from glucose. And so if we take a look up at the structure of glucose from our previous lesson video over here, notice that the C two and the C four hydroxy ALS are going to the right, whereas the C three hydroxyl is going to the left. And so, in terms of up lifting and down right, this translates to down, down, up, down for C two, c three and C four. So down, uh, is here and then up is here, and down is over here. And so this is where we expect the hydra castles to go. So for C two, we expect the hydroxyl to be going down and see four. We expect the hydroxyl to be going down and then for the C three, we expect the hydroxyl to be going up. And then all we have to do is fill in the hydrogen at all of these other positions. And really, that is it. This is the structure here of beta d glue cope. Ira knows, and really you can see that the key was just using these two words uplifting and down. Right. So now let's move on to the next sugar here, Alfa de Manha, piranhas. And the first thing that you see here is the Alfa configuration, which is the configuration of the numeric carbon. And the Alfa reminds us that it's gonna be pointing down to the aunts. And so we know that the alcohol group on the an American carbon is gonna be going in the opposite direction, reaching down for the ants. And so we could go ahead and put the alcohol group right here and then going head and numbering all of the carbon atoms here we can see that we're gonna be paying attention to carbons 23 and four and because the prefix man oh, is in here. That tells us that this sugars derived from manos. And so if we go up to the structure of Manos from our previous lesson video right here you'll notice that the C two and C three are both pointing to the left, whereas the C four hydroxyl is pointing to the right. And so, in terms of uplifting and downright, this translates to up, up, down for C two, c three and C four. So up, up, down would be up here up here and then down four c four and then all we have to do is fill in the hydroxyl. So we have Ohh here. Ohh, here and then Ohh going down over here and then all we need to do is fill in. All of the hydrogen is at thes empty positions and that is the structure of Alfa de Manha piranhas right here. And so at this point, what we're gonna do is allow you guys to pause the video and go ahead and give an attempt at deriving these cyclic sugars, using the linear forms and using this key right here. So we'll assume that you guys have paused the video and giving that a try. And so really, the answer to that is right here and So, which will notice is that all of these have Alfa configuration, which means that the animated carbon is gonna have their hydroxyl groups pointing downwards. And then, of course, all we have to do is use the up lifting and downright to derive the positions of the other hydroxyl groups. And so this year concludes our video on how to use the linear forms of the sugars to derive their cyclic forms. And so, really, if you are able to commit these six sugars from our last lesson video to memory, then you're able to memorize a total of 12 sugars because you'll be able to get the cyclic forms. No problem. And so that concludes this video, and we'll be able to get some practice in our next video, so I'll see you guys there.
The sugar α-D-Mannose is a sweet-tasting sugar. β-D-Mannose, on the other hand, tastes bitter. A pure solution of α-D-mannose loses its sweet taste with time as it is converted into the β anomer. Draw the β anomer:
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Draw the α-furanose and β-pyranose forms of D-ribose.
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Indicate if the following pairs of sugars are enantiomers, anomers, epimers, or an aldose-ketose pair:
a) α-D-galactopyranose and β-D-galactopyranose. ____________________
b) D-glucose and D-mannose. ____________________
c) D-glucose and D-fructose. ____________________
d) α-D-glucopyranose and β-D-glucopyranose. ____________________
e) D-galactose and D-glucose. ____________________
f) α-D-mannopyranose and α-L-mannopyranose. ____________________