in this video, we're gonna refresh on acids and bases. So usually in biochemistry, when we're talking about acids and bases were really referring to Bronson Larry acids and bases and so recall their Bronson Larry Acid is a substance capable of donating a proton, whereas on the other hand, Bronson Larry bases are substances capable of accepting a proton. And so recall from your previous chemistry courses that congregate acids and congregate bases differ from each other, respectively, by a gain or loss of one proton and one charge. And so congregate acids have one additional hydrogen and one additional charge and kinda get bases have one less hydrogen and one less charge. So let's take a look at our example below and before identifying the conjugate acids and bases, it's helpful to identify the parent acids and bases. And so, over here on the reacted side, we have a reactant, which is a car box silica acid because it has a car boxful group and then the other reacted is a water molecule and car box. Cilic acids are much more acidic than water molecules, so the carb oxalic acid is gonna be the parent acid and the water molecule, on the other hand, is gonna be the parent base. And again acids donate hydrogen whereas basis except them. So the car back silk acid has an exit IQ hydrogen shown in green here that it's going to donate. And the base is going to accept that hydrogen. And in general, parent bases are going to have a conjugate acid or turn into a conjugate acid, and parents acids are gonna turn into a conjugate base. And so notice that the kind you get acid of the water molecule has one additional hydrogen and one additional charge, whereas the kind you get base of the parent acid here is gonna have one less hydrogen and one less charge. And so notice here that the kind you get acid of the water molecule has a new bond that's formed here that wasn't formed that wasn't present over here. And so when you make a bond, you break a bond. And so really, what's happening in this reaction is we've got electrons on the water molecule attacking this hydrogen to form a new bond, and then these electrons here are breaking the bond between the oxygen and the hydrogen and the electrons air jumping on the oxygen to make it a negative charge. So you can see over here that's where the negative charge comes from. And we've broken this bond. And then over here we've formed a bond, and we've gained an additional charge because the lone pair is now being shared with the hydrogen. And so and the next part, what I want to emphasize is anti product molecules and recall that anti product molecules are an fee. Pro dick molecules are molecules that can act either as a Bronston, Larry acid or a Bronze it Larry base, depending on the conditions and water, is actually an example of an anti product molecule. So up here we see that water is acting as a base, and down here in this example, notice that water is actually gonna act as an acid. And so what we've got in this example is that we've got an acidic hydrogen on the water molecules shown in green, and so water is actually more acidic than ammonia, which is over here. And so the parent acid again is gonna have a conjugate base, and the parent base is gonna have a conjugate acid and so here. What's happening is we're breaking a bond here and we're making a bond here, So when you make a bond, you break a bond. So really, what's happening is electrons on the nitrogen are attacking the hydrogen toe, make a new bond here, and then the electrons. And here, between this bond, our breaking toe jump on the oxygen. So here we get a hydra a hydroxide ion, which is the conjugate base of water. And then we get this NH four plus ion, which is the conjugate acid of ammonia. And so you can see that this is a good summary of acids and bases and anti product molecules. And in our next video, we're gonna get some practice. I'll see you guys in those videos.