the reactive oxygen species made in Quinones during electron transport are released into the mitochondrial matrix as super oxide radicals. So these are O to minus which are called super oxide radicals. And you might recall that these air actually converted into hydrogen peroxide by super oxide dis mu tastes. And we talked about this first when we looked at the pantos phosphate pathway. Because this hydrogen peroxide is then converted to water. Bye glue tooth. I own peroxide dis That enzyme actually uses Bluetooth. I own and oxidizes it, and it has. The glutathione then has to be reduced by any DPH, which is one of the uses of any DPH and part of the reason it's generated in the pantos phosphate pathway. Now, given the standard reduction potentials here, what is the overall standard Redox potential of electron transport? So hopefully you realize that n a. D h is going thio actually be the beginning of electron transport rights. We have to reverse this equation. So we're going from any d h two n a d plus plus age plus plus two electrons, right, meaning that are reduction potential is actually going to be positive. 32 and The reason this is significant is our overall equation is the potential for oxidation, plus the potential for reduction. So we had to reduction potentials given to us, but we needed this to the flipped so that it would be the oxidation potential. So that makes our overall equation 032 plus 082 which equals 11 Oops, 1.14 volts. Right, Because we are dealing with volts here now, what is the energy released as one mole of electrons moves between cytochrome a three and a one in complex four. So here we actually are looking for the energy and were given reduction potentials. So we are going to need to use this equation. Delta G equals negative and F e. And here Delta G is obviously the change in Gibbs Free Energy and is the number of moles. And F is Faraday's constant, which is equal to 96 1005 Jules per volt times mole or sometimes it's put as 96.5 kill a jewels per volt times mall. Right. Be careful about that killer, whether it's there or not. Anyhow, here we also need to determine our reduction potential, right? Well, where are the electrons going from? Where they come from and where do they go? Cotton eye Joe? Tell me that. So they come from, uh, they Sorry. They come from a one, and they go to a three. So a one is going to be oxidized. Meaning this has to be flipped. So we get that Delta G equals negative one, right? And is one just one mole times 1005 100. This is Jules Curve. All time, small times and E here is going to be equal. Thio 0.35 minus 0.2 nine. These air, both volts. So our answer, our overall answer is negative. Jules per mole or negative five point seven. Killer jewels. Permal, if you prefer same difference. All right, let's flip the page and finish up with some photo phosphor elation, questions