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Which of the following is NOT a form of kinetic energy?
a) When the temperature of a substance rises causing the molecules of that substance to move faster.
b) When a hockey puck slides across the ice after being hit by a player.
c) When glucose molecules are broken down to create energy for cellular work.
d) When the molecules of the air vibrate transmitting soundwaves.
Why are the principles of thermodynamics important for the study of biology?
a) The principles of thermodynamics govern the chemical processes in all biological organisms.
b) The principles of thermodynamics govern how an organism exchanges energy with their environment.
c) The principles of thermodynamics govern how all life on Earth exchanges energy.
d) All of the above.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a biological system?
a) A human eating a cheeseburger.
b) A coral reef where energy and mass both enter and exit.
c) The digestive system of an organism absorbing food energy and discarding food waste.
d) The universe where the amount of energy and mass is constant.
When chemical, transport, or mechanical work is done by an organism, what happens to the heat generated?
a) It is used to power yet more cellular work in the surroundings.
b) It is captured to store energy as more heat in the system.
c) It is used to generate ADP.
d) It is lost to the environment.
Which of the following statements is true regarding how energy moves up the food chain?
a) All of the energy is not transferred from producer to consumer because some of the energy is destroyed.
b) All of the energy is transfer from producer to consumer.
c) All of the energy is not transferred from producer to consume because some of the energy is lost as heat.
d) None of the above.
Which of the following statements is true for all exergonic reactions?
a) The products have more total energy than the reactants.
b) The reaction proceeds with a net loss of free energy.
c) The reaction goes only in a forward direction: all reactants will be converted to products.
d) A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed.
Which of the following statements is true?
a) ADP contains more potential energy than ATP.
b) Following hydrolysis, ATP can give off one phosphate group and usable energy, whereas ADP cannot.
c) The energy produced by ATP comes from the breaking of the bond between two phosphate groups.
d) AMP and ADP contain the same amount of potential energy.
Which of the following are examples of the functions of enzymes?
a) A lactase enzyme breaking down lactose sugar in the small intestine.
b) A DNA polymerase enzyme synthesizing new strands of DNA.
c) A lipase enzyme breaking down fats (lipids) in the small intestine.
d) A helicase enzyme unraveling DNA so it can be replicated.
e) All of the above.
Which characteristics are likely associated with an enzyme isolated from a human stomach where conditions are strongly acidic.
a) An enzyme that functions properly at 70 degrees Fahrenheit and at a neutral pH.
b) An enzyme that functions properly at 98 degrees Fahrenheit and at an acidic pH.
c) An enzyme that functions properly at 98 degrees Fahrenheit and at a neutral pH.
d) An enzyme that functions properly at 70 degrees Fahrenheit and at an acidic pH.
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding an enzyme’s function?
a) It is generally increased if the structure or conformation of an enzyme is altered.
b) It is independent of factors such as pH and temperature.
c) It increases the rate of chemical reactions by lowering activation energy barriers.
Which of the following statements correctly describes competitive inhibition?
a) A competitive inhibitor binds to the substrate and inhibits it from binding to the active site of the enzyme.
b) A competitive inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site and inhibits the substrate from binding.
c) A competitive inhibitor binds to the active site and degrades the enzyme.
d) A competitive inhibitor binds to the active site of an enzyme and inhibits the substrate to bind.
How does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?
a) By binding to the active site of the enzyme, thus preventing binding of the normal substrate.
b) By binding to an allosteric site, thus changing the shape of the active site of the enzyme.
c) By decreasing the free-energy change of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme.
d) By binding to the substrate, thus changing its shape so that it no longer binds to the active site of the enzyme.
Which of the following is TRUE about feedback inhibition?
a) Feedback inhibition has no physiological importance.
b) Multiple products are required for feedback inhibition.
c) Feedback inhibition of a pathway can only be accomplished by the products of that pathway.
d) Feedback inhibition involves products binding to the active site to prevent enzyme activity.
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