in this video, we're going to do a review of aerobic cellular respiration, and so really, we're not going to cover any new information in this video. We're on Lee going to review information that we've already covered in our previous lesson videos and re capping the most important takeaways. And so if you already feel really good about aerobic cellular respiration, then feel free to skip this video. However, if you're struggling with aerobic cellular respiration, even just a little bit, then feel free to stick around because we're going to recap aerobic cellular respiration here Now that being said, recall that there are four stages of aerobic cellular respiration and down below. What we have is an image recapping all four stages of aerobic cellular respiration and so in Arabic cellular respiration recall that the vast majority of Arabic cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria, and the mitochondria is this big pink thing that's in the background. And so the vast majority of cellular respiration does occur inside of the mitochondria. However, not all of cellular respiration occurs inside the mitochondria because the very first step of aerobic cellular respiration, which is like Collis ISS, actually occurs just outside of the mitochondria and the area of the cell known as the cytoplasm. And so glide Collis ISS again has the root Glick Oh, which means sugar and the route license, which means to break down. And so Glen Collis is is going to break down a sugar. More specifically, it's going to break down the sugar, the mono sack ride glucose, which has a total of six carbon atoms represented by these six black circles. And so, ultimately, these six carbon atoms of glucose are all going to be converted into carbon dioxide and exhaled out of our bodies. And so that's important. To keep in mind about these six carbon atoms of glucose and so, like Collis is, is going to take glucose and break it up into two Piru Bates. And additionally, it also is going to produce two N A. D. H molecules, which are electron carriers. Full taxicabs, if you will electron taxicabs and also like Collis is is going to produce a net of to a TPS produced via substrate level phosphor elation. Now, after these two Piru bits have been produced, vehicle I calluses. Those two pair of eights are going to be transported into the mitochondrial matrix, which is where Piru oxidation is going to occur. And so Parubiy oxidation is going to take these two Piru Bates, and it's going to oxidize those two pi Piru Bates Creating tomb or an A D. H is two acetyl COA is, and it's going to release to carbon dioxides or to CO two molecules. And so what you'll notice is that in the two Piru Bates, each of them have three carbon atoms. One of the carbon atoms on each pair of it is going to be released as C 02 and the other two carbon atoms are going to become part of the acetyl coa, a molecule. Now, after these two acetyl coa a molecules have been produced. They're going to transition into the citric acid cycle or the Krebs cycle, and the crab cycle is ultimately going to produce, uh, through both of the acetyl coa a coming through, uh, it's going to end up producing a total of 2 80 p molecules, a total of two F A. D. H two molecules and a total of six and a d H molecules, and it's also going to release these four carbon atoms between both acetyl COA is as four co two molecules. And so these are the products of the citric acid cycle, or Krebs cycle. And so, ultimately, all six of the carbon atoms that originally came in as glucose were released as six carbon dioxides. And so it's noticed that a total of six carbon dioxide are being released and exhaled. And so all of the carbon atoms we followed their path in this process. For them, toe all get released. And so we're not gonna any follow those carbon atoms any further. Instead, what we're going to do is follow these electron carriers that have been produced throughout this process, and so notice that a cumulatively there are a total of 10 and a D. H molecules that have been generated, and there's also a total of two F a. D. H twos that have been created. So here is the total of these three processes how Maney electron carriers they produced. And so once again, all of these electron carriers are going to make their way to the electron transport chain. And after the electron transport chain builds up a hydrogen ion concentration, radiant Chemie osmosis is going to allow for the production of lots and lots of 80 p through oxidative phosphor relation. And so there's some 26 to 34 80 p molecules produced in this final stage of aerobic cellular respiration. And so 26 to 34 is the vast majority of the 80 p. Because recall that the first three stages combined, Onley produced a total of 4 80 p v a substrate level foster relation. And so also in the electron transport chain Um, what's going to happen? Is there going to be six oxygen gas molecules that are gonna act as the final electron except er in the electron transport chain? And those six oxygen gas molecules are going to react to form six water molecules. And so we have those here as well. And so when we're looking at the grand total of how maney 80 p molecules, uh, aerobic cellular respiration produced, we need to consider the total amount of 80 p produced by oxidative phosphor relation, which is some 26 to 34. And we also need to consider the ATP's produced via substrate level foster relation during the Krebs cycle, or citric acid cycle. And during like Collis Issa's well and so basically what we have is 26 plus four is going to give us a total of 30 80 p s at the minimum and then, of course, 34 80 p plus. Thes two here is going to give us a total of 38. 80 p. And so the grand total amount of 80 p between all of aerobic cellular respiration is somewhere between 30 to 38. 80 p. And that is all from just one single glucose molecule that enters to sell leads to some 30 to 38. 80 p s. And so that's pretty efficient. From 181 glucose, you get 30 38 ATP's. That is incredibly efficient. And so this here concludes our review of aerobic cellular respiration and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward. So I'll see you all in our next video
Through the first three stages of cellular respiration only 4 ATP molecules have been produced from the initial glucose molecule. In which of the products of these stages is the potential energy to produce more ATP molecules stored?
a) The 6 molecules of CO2.
b) The H+ ions produced.
c) The 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 molecules.
d) The 4 molecules of ATP.
The 6 molecules of CO2.
The H+ ions produced.
The 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 molecules.
The 4 molecules of ATP.
Total Products for Each Stage of Aerobic Cellular Respiration
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in this video, we're going to continue our review of Arabic cellular respiration by filling in the table with the total products made from a single glucose molecule at each step of Arabic cellular respiration. And so notice down below. In this table, what we have are the four stages of aerobic cellular respiration across the top. And so those are like Collis is Peruvian oxidation, the Krebs cycle, or the citric acid cycle, and oxidative fossil relation, which includes the electron transport chain and Kenya's Moses. And so notice over here, what we have are the start molecule, the number of carbon dioxide molecules or CO two, the number of 80 p molecules. The number of electron carriers, including F A. D, H two and N A. D. H, and the ending molecule for this stage. And so when it comes to glide Cal Acis, the start molecule is, of course, going to be a single glucose so we could go ahead and put in glucose here in terms of the amount of co two molecules produced during like Hollis, this is actually going to be zero, and then, in terms of the 80 p molecules, Glen Collis is is going to produce a net of 2. 80 p. S. It produces zero F A. D. H two s, but it does produce two and a D. H s and the ending molecule is really going to be to Piru v molecules. And so really, this is the summary of, like Cal Assis. So now moving on to Piru bit oxidation here the start molecule for Piru oxidation is, of course, going to be the Piru bits that were generated in Glen Collis ISS. And so we could go ahead and put in to Piru bits. Here, we'll put this in red to Piru Bates. And so, in terms of carbon dioxide, each of these Piru Bates is going to lose a carbon as a carbon dioxide molecule. And so there's going to be a total of two co two molecules produced in terms of a teepee. It turns out that there's actually 0 80 p s made in pirouette oxidation. There are also zero f A. D. H two is made in Peru oxidation, but there are two and a D H molecules made in Piru oxidation. And so because Piru oxidation is the second stage, that's helpful to remember that it produces. It takes two Piru Bates and converts them into to carbon dioxide two and a DHS and to a C. Delco a molecules. And that is really the ending molecule of piru oxidation. Now moving on. What we have is the Krebs cycle or this citric acid cycle. And, of course, the starting molecule for the Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle is going to be the ending molecule for the previous step, which is to acetyl COA A's. And so we could go ahead and put in two acetyl COA is here as the starting molecules, and each of these acetyl COA is has to undergo the Krebs cycle. And so there's going to be a cumulative total of four carbon dioxide molecules produced ah total of 2. 80 p. Molecules produced a total of two F A. D. H two molecules produced and a total of six and a D. H molecules produced. And of course, the ending molecule is that, uh, there is no ending molecule molecule. In fact, we could say that the ending molecule would just be ox alot acetate, since that is the molecule that gets regenerated during the Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle. But really, the ending molecule is ah, tough molecule, because the cycle is, ah, cycle that begins and ends with the same place. So ultimately, the cycle ends with oxalate acetate regeneration. And so this oxtail acetate is just going to continue to be part of another Krebs cycle, Um, revolution or another Krebs cycle reaction. And so, uh, noticed that all of the six carbon atoms of glucose were ultimately converted into carbon dioxide, so noticed that there are six carbon dioxides that are being produced. And so now what we're going to do is essentially follow these electron carriers to the final step, which is gonna be the electron transport chain in Kenya's Moses, which perform oxidative foster relation. And so, during oxidative phosphor relation, you could say that the starting molecules are going to be the electron carriers such as, for example, and a d H and F a d H twos. And so these and a. D. H and F a. D h two electron carriers, they're going to drop off their electrons. And ultimately, in terms of carbon dioxide, there are going to be zero carbon dioxides produced during oxidative foster relation. In terms of a teepee molecules, there's gonna be somewhere between 2. 30 Ah, four uh, a teepee molecules that air produced during oxidative foster correlation. So notice the vast majority of 80 p comes from the final stage here with oxidative foster relation. Uh, in terms of f A. D. H two s and any DHS, they don't produce them, so there's gonna be zero. Instead, what they do is they consume those n a. D h and f a d h two s by, uh taking their electrons and then in terms of the ending molecule, what we could say is that it is going to be water h 20 And that's because recall that oxygen gas acts as the final electron, except er and that oxygen gas reacts with hydrogen ions to form water. And so, really, this here fills out our entire table. And to get the totals, all we need to do is fill in the rest of these columns here, and so noticed that in terms of the totals for carbon dioxide, there are a total of six carbon dioxides that are being produced, and so the original six carbon atoms that were found in glucose were all ultimately converted into six co two molecules, six carbon dioxide molecules And these six carbon dioxide molecules are ultimately exhaled outside of our bodies. Now, in terms of the total amount of ATP, what we have is somewhere between 30 2 total ATP's produced an Arabic cellular Respiration in terms of F A. D. H two is the total are going to be a total of two. And in terms of n a. D. H is there's going to be a total of 10 and a DHS that were produced. And so this here concludes and fills out our entire table here, which is really just reviewing the total products for each stage of Arabic cellular respiration. And so now that we filled out this table, we can now move on and apply some of the concepts that we reviewed and some practice problems. So I'll see you all there
Water is one of the products of aerobic cellular respiration. What is the source of the oxygen atom utilized to create the water molecules?
a) Carbon dioxide (CO2).
b) Glucose (C6H12O6).
c) Oxygen gas (O2).
d) Pyruvate (C3H3O3–).
Carbon dioxide (CO2).
Oxygen gas (O2).
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) through the process of aerobic cellular respiration?