15. Central Dogma & Gene Regulation
Introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation
Introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation
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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation. And so gene regulation in eukaryotes is extremely important to allow for a process known as differential gene expression. And so differential. Gene expression is a process that allows for multi cellular organisms to express jeans differently in different cells, which is going to allow multi cellular organisms to have different cell types. Now what's important to note is that all cells of a multi cellular organism have the same genome or the same set of D N A. But they have a different proteome, or a different set of proteins. And the reason that these different cell types have a different protium is because their genes are being regulated differently. There is differential gene expression and different forms of regulation occurring in different cells. And so, as we move forward in our course, will be able to talk about all of the different types of gene regulation that can occur inside of you carry its. But for now, let's take a look at our image down below, which will help us better understand differential gene expression and how it can lead to different cell types within a multi cellular organism. And so, for example, liver cells and skin cells of a multi cellular organism. They're going to have the same D n a or the same genome. But those genes will have, uh, be expressed differently. So different genes are going to be expressed. And that leads to a different protium, or a different set of proteins, and that leads to a different cell types. And so, over here on the far left hand side, notice that we're showing you a single eukaryotic cell and eukaryotic multi cellular organisms like humans, for example, they start off as a single eukaryotic cell. And so, uh, this single eukaryotic cell is, of course, going to divide to create trillions of cells. But it's also going to undergo differential gene expression where different cells are going to be regulating their genes differently, leading to different proteins being expressed, which leads to different cell types. And so the liver cell is going to have the same DNA as the red blood cell, which has the same DNA as the neuron and the skin cell and the kidney cells. So the D. N A of all of these cell types is the same. But what is different is the expression of those genes. The expression of the DNA is different, and the expression of the D N A leads to a different protium different set of proteins. And so the liver cell. Although it has the same DNA as all of these other ones, it has a unique proteome in comparison to these other, uh, cell types. And so what you'll see here is that a eukaryotic multi cellular organism like a human is going to have a whole bunch of different cell types, all thanks to differential gene expression. And so again, differential gene expression is possible through all of the different forms of gene regulation that you carry. Those are capable of performing, and we'll be able to talk about those different types of gene regulation and eukaryotes as we move forward in our course. But for now, this year concludes our introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation, and I'll see you guys in our next video
The process of cellular differentiation is a direct result of:
Differential gene expression.
Mutations made in specific cells.
Different types of cell division.
Differences in cellular genomes.
Map of Eukaryotic Gene Regulation
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in this video, we're going to introduce our map of eukaryotic gene regulation, which is down below in our image right here. And so notice that this image is showing you gene expression where genes or DNA can be used as a template to build RNA in the process called transcription and then RNA can be used to build proteins in the process called translation and recall from our previous lesson videos that you carry out of gene regulation can occur at any of these five stages of regulation that we have number number one here number 234 and five. And so the first level that regulation can occur at is chromosome rearrangements or just chromatic modifications. And as we move forward in our course, we're going to talk about these, uh, stages of gene regulation in their particular order. So we'll start off with chromosome rearrangements or chromosome modifications, which includes the difference between hetero chrome button and you crow Martin, his stone assimilation and DNA methylation, all topics that we'll talk about moving forward, and then we'll move on to transcription all control, which is going to control the process of transcription. And that includes General transcription factors and specific transcription factors, which we'll talk about moving forward. Then we'll move on to post transcription all control, which includes our alternative RNA splicing and processing of M R N A. To provide protection for m r N A. Then we'll move on to translational control, uh, such as things like RNA interference. And then last but not least, we'll talk about post translational control, which includes protein modifications such as, for example, protein ubiquity nation. And so, really, what you see here, this is a map and you can use this just like you would use a map to guide you throughout our lesson moving forward so you can make predictions about what we're going to cover next and the order of the topics. And we're going to start off talking about again chromosome rearrangements working our way down and then shifting over to the second one transcription of control, working down, then post transcription all and so on in this order that you see here and so over here on the right notice, we have a trimmed up version of this same exact map. It's just a smaller version, and this is a version of the map that we're going to use moving forward as a reference. And so what you'll notice is that it has the chromatic modification. It has transcription all control RNA processing, which is post transcription all control. Then it has M N M RNA degradation, which is going to be a type of post transcription of control. And then it has translation, which would be translational control and then finally post translational or protein modifications at the bottom, which would be post translational control. And so, really, this image that you see here is a representation and a consolidation of this large map that we have of eukaryotic gene regulation. And so what you'll notice about this map is that it's actually representing a cell. And here is the whole box here represents the cell and inside of the cell you have this circle here, which represents the nucleus, and so Crompton modifications, transcription and RNA processing post transcription of controls are going to occur within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism. But other, uh, jean regular gene regulation um, strategies such as M RNA degradation, translation, translational control and post translational modifications. They occur in the cytoplasm of the cell, and so we'll be able to focus on those details as well as we move forward in our course. But for now, this year concludes our brief introduction to the map of Eukaryotic gene regulation. And again, you can reference this map as we move forward in our course. And so we're going to start off talking about chroma, tin rearrangements or chromosome modifications, and I'll see you all in that video.