in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on a process known as clonal selection. And so first we need to recall from some of our previous lesson videos that each individual B. And T cell actually has many identical B. C. R. S. Or T. C. R. S. On its surface that only allows it to respond to one very specific antigen. However, within our bodies there are pre existing populations of many different B. And T cells that have different B. C. R. S. And T. Crs. And collectively looking at all of those B. And T cells within those populations they can recognize and respond to a wide range of many different antigens. So when we do get infected with a very specific antigen, how is it that our adaptive immune system ensures the proliferation of only very specific B. And T cells that can appropriately respond to the given infection that we have? Well in order to answer that question we have to take a look at the clonal selection theory. And so the clonal selection theory basically states that upon being infected with a very specific antigen, only very specific B. And T cells within a mixed population of many different types of B. And T cells are going to be selected to become activated and make identical clones of itself. And so in other words what we're saying is that the clonal selection theory says that only the very specific B and T cells that bind the antigen or respond to the antigen are going to be selected to proliferate and create an army of clones that are effective towards that very specific antigen that we are infected with. And so what this means is that all of the other B. And T cells that do not bind the very specific antigen that were infected with those are not going to be selected to proliferate. And so only the very specific B. And T cells within the populations of B. And T cells are going to be selected to proliferate and respond. And so we can get a better understanding of the clonal selection theory by taking a look at our example down below of the clonal selection theory where we apply it to B cells. But again it also applies to two T cells as well. And so here we're looking at the clonal selection of very specific B cells within a mixed population of different B cells in response to a very specific antigen. And so notice within this image we have three different layers. We have this top layer here uh this middle layer right here and then we have the bottom layer at the bottom. And so at the very top here in this first layer, what we're showing you is the mixed B cell population. And so what you'll notice is that within our bodies will have a population of many different B cells. So here we have B cell number one B cell number two and B cell number three. And these are three different B cells now within the same B cell the B. C. R. S. Will be identical and respond to the same antigen. However across different B cells uh those B cells will have different VcRS that allows them to respond to different antigens. And so notice that here in this image the antigen that is present is this red antigen that you see here and notice that not all of the B cells will respond to this very specific antigen. However, the B cell that does recognize and respond to that specific antigen will be selected to move on to the next stage which is B cell activation and proliferation. And again proliferation just means to multiply and create identical clones. And so notice that it's only B. Cell number two that has the B. C. R. S to bind and respond to this very specific antigen. And so it's B. Cell number two. Not B cell number one. Not be cell number three. Uh that is going to be selected to proliferate. And so notice that this B cell becomes activated and it begins proliferating or making clones dividing. And so now we have an army of clones that are capable of responding to this very specific antigen that we are infected with. So then after B cell activation and proliferation of course what we have next is the differentiation of the activated B cells. And of course that means that it's going to be changing its phenotype to become either a plasma cell that secretes antibodies or memory B cell that will respond to a secondary infection of the same exact antigen. And so notice here that we have this activated B cell is differentiating into these plasma cells. Which will again secrete antibodies produce antibodies. And these antibodies will be specific to the very specific antigen that we are infected with helping to eliminate that particular antigen. And again notice that some of the B cells, instead of differentiating into plasma cells, they will differentiate into memory B cells and they'll be able to respond even faster upon a secondary infection. And so here uh this here concludes our brief lesson on the clonal selection theory and how only very specific clones within a mixed population are going to be selected to proliferate and differentiate in order to respond to the very specific antigen that is present. And these other B. And T cells, these other B cells that are here uh they will not proliferate unless they're very specific antigen is present. And so again this concludes our brief lesson on the clonal selection uh and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward. So I'll see you all in our next video
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Each B cell has BCRs that bind to a single antigen.
The cell type that secretes antibodies is called a plasma cell.
A BCR allows naive B cells to detect an antigen.
All naive B cells that are close in proximity to an antigen begin to differentiate.
Implies that each individual lymphocyte produces a single antibody.
Describes how the adaptive immune system can produce millions of different antibodies.
Depends on an antibody recognizing a specific epitope.
Is based on random naive B cells proliferating and differentiating.
The clonal selection theory states that:
Self-reacting T cells are destroyed in the bone marrow.
B cells will only proliferate during an infection if their BCRs successfully bind to the pathogen.
Antibody structure changes as it encounters an antigen for higher specificity binding.
Each T cell produces many different types of antibodies.
Which of the following is NOT an organ where clonal selection occurs?