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Learn the toughest concepts covered in Microbiology with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors.

21. Principles of Disease

Introduction to Pathogenic Toxins


Introduction to Pathogenic Toxins

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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to pathogenic toxins. And so certain pathogens are capable of producing biological poisons that are called toxins and these toxins allow for the pathogens to invade and damage host tissues. Now the term toxic Jenness city refers to the ability for the pathogen to produce toxins that damage the host cells. And toxins can be classified into two groups. The first group are the exa toxins and the second group are the endo toxin. Now Exa toxins are soluble proteins and these eggs. A toxins which are soluble proteins are going to be released by a pathogen during an infection or following license of the pathogen. Now moving forward in our course, we're going to talk more details about eggs, a toxins. And we'll also learn moving forward that there are three different categories of exa toxins and these three different categories of eggs. A toxins are grouped by their different structures and functions. And we'll be able to see those three different groups down below in our image when we get there very shortly. Now the endo toxins on the other hand specifically refers to lipo policy sacha ride or lPS, which is found in the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria. And again, we'll get to talk a lot more details about the endo toxins as we move forward in our course for now this is just the introduction to these toxins. And so if we take a look at our image down below, which you'll notice is we've got this map of our lesson on pathogenic toxins. And once again these toxins, they can be categorized either as exa toxins or they could be categorized as endo toxin. Now, what you'll notice is that the endo, I'm sorry the Exa toxins can further be categorized into three different groups the A. B. Toxins, the membrane damaging toxins which include pore forming toxins and phosphor, white paces and then these super antigens. And so once again moving forward in our course, we'll get to talk about each of these different groups of eggs, A. Toxins and then the endo toxin specifically refers to the lipo policy saccharine or the LPS that's found in the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria. Now also it is important to note that the host immune system itself is also capable of unintended damage to host cells when the immune system is overstimulated during an infection. And so sometimes pathogens can cause harm simply by inducing our own host immune system to over stimulate and cause damage. And so this is an idea that we'll get to talk more about as we move forward in our course as well. But for now this here concludes our brief introduction to pathogenic toxins and we'll be able to learn more about them as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video

Phospholipases are characterized by all of the following except which of these answers?


The term endotoxin is synonymous with: