7. Prokaryotic Cell Structures & Functions
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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on speculation. And so recall from our previous lesson videos that sport regulation, as its name implies, is the process of endospore formation from a vegetative cell or a normal cell. And so the process of sport regulation starts when essential nutrients are depleted from the environment. And so as soon as the vegetative cell starts to detect damaging conditions and unfavorable conditions, it can initiate the process of speculation. Now the process of speculation takes place in a series of five steps that we have numbered down below one through five. And so in this image, we're going to go over the steps of speculation. And in the very first step, the cell is actually going to stop growing and the chromosome all D. N. A. Is going to be replicated. And so over here you can see that we have a cell that has stopped growing and the chromosomal DNA has been replicated. As you can see here in step number two, a structure known as the septum is going to form to divide the cell into a large and a small compartment. And so over here you can see the large compartment. And over here you can see the smaller compartment and notice that the structure in between here is the septum that forms Now in step # three, the small compartment is going to be engulfed by the large compartment. And so you can see that here the smaller compartment is being engulfed by the larger compartment. And in that process that leads to Step number four, where the four spore, something known as the force for is fully formed as the cortex and the coat layers of the indo sport are produced. Uh And this force for is also going to be dehydrated in this process as well. And so down below, we have the definition of force for which is really a precursor of an endospore that is still completely engulfed inside of the cell. And so in this image which you'll notice uh for step number four is we have the full cell here, but embedded inside, we have this circular structure here which is representing the four spore. Uh This precursor spore that is going to end up turning into the full end of sport. And so the dehydration of the force for you can see that we have water leaving the force for here, H20. Is leaving and the dehydration stops enzyme activity. And this helps to put the force pour into a dormant state, which we know that the endospore is a dormant cell. And so in the fifth and final step, the fully mature endospore is going to be released and the cell is going to lice. And so you can see that the vast majority to sell here is LISZT and the end of sport is released. And so this is the highly resistant dormant cell that is able to survive these nutrient depleted and unfavorable conditions. And so as soon as the endospore is able to detect uh the environment going back to a favorable state, then the endospore can trigger another process, known as germination, which is where the endospore reverts back into a vegetative cell. And it's a very complicated process and essentially is going to be the opposite of speculation. But we'll get to talk more about germination uh in our next lesson video for now, this here concludes our introduction to speculation and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward. So, I'll see you while in our next video.
During sporulation, the formation of the _________ divides the cell into large and small compartments.