19. Innate Immunity
First-Line Defenses: Normal Microflora
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in this video, we're going to discuss the normal microbiota as a first line defense mechanism of innate immunity. And so the normal microbiota is also sometimes referred to as the microbiome. And this is referring to the population of resident microbes that grow in and on our bodies and they are representative of healthy humans. And so healthy humans have a healthy microbiome. Now the normal microbiota or the microbiome is part of the first line of defense and an immunity and it is essential to the immune development during and after childbirth. And so humans will acquire their microbiota during childbirth as well as after childbirth. Now some of the members of the microbiota will protect us by blocking attachment sites that pathogenic microbes used to cause harm. And so by blocking these attachment sites, it's helping to protect us from these pathogenic microbes. Now, other members of the microbiota are able to produce chemicals that are actually toxic to pathogenic bacteria once again helping to protect us against pathogenic bacteria. And so these are ways that are normal microbiota can really protect us from these pathogenic microbes. Now the normal micro biotic can be disrupted and when it is disrupted uh when we use antibiotics, antibiotics can disrupt our normal microbiota. And when that happens that makes a person more susceptible to various infections because our normal microbiota plays a huge role in protecting us from pathogenic microbes. Now the term probiotics refers to live microbes, live microbe cultures that are actually applied or ingested, thereby benefiting the normal microbiota. And the term pre biotics specifically refers to chemicals that are used to promote the growth of the beneficial uh consumed microbes, uh and so those will be consumed with probiotics. So probiotics are going to be live microbe cultures and pre biotics are going to be chemicals that benefit those probiotics. And so if we take a look at this image down below, notice the left hand side, we have this image that's focusing on the first line of defense uh and focusing specifically on the microbiome. And so here we're showing you the normal microbiota or the microbiome, which again uh is really just um talking about those microbes that live on and in us. And so here we're showing you a bunch of microbes living on and in our bodies. And so we refer to this as our normal microbiome or normal microbiota. And so notice here in this little cartoon, we're showing you our normal microbiome here says you are not welcome here to these pathogenic microbes and the microbes here saying, well you're not really a good host. And so this is just a cartoon just showing you how the normal microbiome that we have is important for protecting us. And it does serve as a first line of defense. And so this year concludes our brief lesson on the normal microbiota as a first line defense mechanism and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video
Are the organisms that typically reside on and in your body.
Protect against infection by pathogens.
Enhance infection by pathogens.
Play no role in affecting pathogen growth.
A and B.
C and D.