19. Innate Immunity
Introduction to Innate Immunity
Introduction to Innate Immunity
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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to innate immunity. And so first we need to recall from some of our previous lesson videos that innate immunity refers to routine protective mechanisms that are present at birth and help protect our bodies against a broad range of many different types of pathogens. Which is also why innate immunity is sometimes referred to as non specific immunity. Now in the immune responses, unlike adaptive immune responses, they developed very, very fast, generating a response usually within just a few hours rather than days or weeks. And also unlike adaptive immune responses, innate immune responses do not require previous exposure to the pathogen. And so this means that innate immune responses will generate a similar response to many different types of pathogens and will generate a similar response upon a first exposure to the pathogen as well as uh subsequent exposures to the pathogen. Now a classic example of an innate immune response is inflammation and we'll get to talk a lot more details about inflammation later in our course. But for now we can say that inflammation is an example of an innate immune response and it consists of a coordinated set of events that occurs when the body detects foreign antigens or if the body detects tissue damage. And so down below we're showing an image that shows you some of the main characteristics of inflammation. Again, a classic example of an innate immune response. And so again, we'll learn a lot more details about inflammation later in our course, but some of the characteristics of information includes swelling, heat altered function, redness and pain, and again upon being exposed to many different types of microbes and upon subsequent exposures to the same microbe. The innate immune response is going to be somewhat similar. And so this year concludes our brief introduction to innate immunity. And in our next lesson video will be able to talk about our map of the lesson on innate immunity. And so I'll see you all in that video.
Map of Lesson on Innate Immunity
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in this video, we're going to introduce our map of the lesson on innate immunity which is down below right here. And so we can go ahead and title the top of our map innate immunity. And so because this is a map of our lesson moving forward on innate immunity, this means that you can actually use this image as a map to help guide you as you move forward through the lesson, it's almost like a table of contents for our lesson moving forward. And so the way that we're going to explore this map as always, is going to be by following the left most branches first. And so we'll talk about the first line of defense, including the physical chemical barriers in the microbiome. Then we'll start exploring the branches on the right, including the second line of defense cells of immunity, the scanning systems including cell communication pattern recognition receptors, the complement system. And then of course we'll move on to the defectors including faga psychosis, inflammation, fever and the interfere on response. And so we'll use this map as a guide as a table of contents and we'll cover the topics as you saw from left branch making you the way over to the right branches. And so one thing that's important to note about this map of the lesson on innate immunity is that innate immunity itself uh is really broken up into two lines of defense. We have the first line of innate defenses and then we have the second line of innate defenses. And so what you'll notice is that the first line of innate defenses are geared to prevent microbes from entering the tissues within the body. And so taking a look at our innate immunity map, notice that the first line defenses are over here on the left and notice that the second line defenses are all over here on the right. Uh And so taking a look at the first line defenses, noticed that once again it includes physical and chemical barriers as well as the microbiome. Now the second line defenses are going to include cells of innate immunity that work to identify or I. D. Uh microbes that have invaded as well as to eliminate microbes that have bypassed the first line of defense. And so once again notice the second line of defense is over here this right branch of our map. But you'll notice that the second line of defense is really broken up into two further groups. We have the scanning systems which could be to a here and then we have the innate defectors which could be to be. And so notice that the scanning systems are over here in our map and the defectors are over here in our map and green. And so you can see how we are breaking down this innate immunity lesson. And so the scanning systems are going to sense or scan the body in order to sense or detect signs of invading microbes and there will do that by using sentinel cells. And so you can see sentinel cells kind of goes hand in hand with this sense here. And so sentinel cells are cells that sense or detect signs of invading microbes. And so what you'll see here is that the scanning systems include uh cell communication pattern recognition receptors as well as the complement system. And once again we'll talk a lot more details about this as we move forward in our course. Now the native factors are going to be innate actions or innate responses that are geared to eliminate microbes that have been identified by the scanning systems. And so these innate factors are going to include Figo psychosis, inflammation, fever, and the interferon response, all of which we'll get to talk a lot more details about as we move forward in our course. Now another thing to note here is that the scanning systems can trigger the effect ear's and so notice specifically the complement system is going to be able to trigger Figo psychosis and inflammation. And so the complement system can promote Figo cito system and inflammation. And so we'll be able to talk more about these red arrows here as we move forward in our course. Now, one thing to note is that the first line defenses somewhat resembles security walls that are protecting some facility. And so the security walls protecting a facility are going to prevent the entry of microbes prevent microbe entry. And so the first line defenses of innate immunity somewhat resembles security walls which is why we have the security wall image right next to it. Now the secure the scanning systems somewhat resemble security cameras that are meant to detect signs of microbes and detect signs of damage caused by microbes. And so the scanning symbol systems resemble security cameras. And so that's why we have the security cameras here. And then of course, last but not least, the defector actions uh resemble security soldiers because they are going to eliminate invaders. And so that's why we have the security soldiers here next to the defectors. And so this here is helpful to keep in mind as we move forward throughout our lesson. And once again, you want to be able to use this map and refer back to this map as we move forward through our lessons so that you don't get lost and you know exactly where we are going within our lesson. And so once again we're following this map by following the left most branches first. So we'll talk about the first line defenses first and then we'll move on to talk about the second line defenses. And so this here concludes our brief introduction to our map of the lesson on innate immunity. And so I'll see you all in our next video
Skin and mucous membranes are mostly involved in:
The 1st line of defense that the body uses to prevent infection includes?
Physical barriers to infection (skin).
Chemical barriers to infection (saliva & stomach acid).
Cells of the innate immune system.
Fever and inflammation.
A and B.
C and D.
A patient consumed food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. However, the patient did not become ill. The doctor explained to the patient that the acidity of the patient’s stomach can kill many organisms, including bacteria. This type of protection would be classified as?
Adaptive immunity; which provides nonspecific immunity.
Adaptive immunity; which provides immunity against specific pathogens.
Innate immunity; which provides nonspecific immunity.
Innate immunity; which provides immunity against specific pathogens.
Antibodies are a part of which type of immunity and why?
Adaptive immunity; Antibodies recognize specific antigens/pathogens.
Innate immunity; Antibodies are able to recognize any type of antigen/pathogen.
Evolutionary immunity; Antibodies can easily change to recognize any new antigen/pathogen.