in this video, we're going to continue talking about the properties of water specifically, how water can act as the universal solvent. Now water is described as the universal solvent because water is capable of dissolving so many different types of Saul Utes. And so we need to differentiate between the term solvent and Saul use. And so the Sol vent is defined as the substance that does the dissolving, and usually the solvent is going to be found in larger amounts. And when we're referring to life, usually the solvent is going to be water itself. And because water can dissolve so many different types of biological molecules, we call it the universal solvent. Now the Sol Ute, on the other hand, is defined as the substance that gets dissolved by the solvent, which does the dissolving. And so usually the Salyut is going to be found in much smaller amounts. And so if we take a look at our image down below, at our example, we can differentiate between the solvent and the Sol ute. And so we're looking at an example of table salt or N a c l sodium chloride being dissolved in water and so notice on the left. Here we have our sodium chloride, the table salt and on the right. We have the sodium chloride being poured into our water. And so over here on the left hand side, when we're just looking at the table salt. Recall that it's made up of sodium chloride molecules, and the sodium chloride molecules form ionic bonds between the sodium cat ion, which is positively charged, and the chloride and ion, which is negatively charged. And so there is an intact ionic bond forming between these two ions. However, when we take the table salt and we dissolve the table salt into the water, as we see over here, which will notice is that the ionic bonds are being disrupted. And so we have disrupted ionic bonds. And so the sodium cat ion is not capable of forming an ionic bond with the chloride an ion, mainly because the water molecules that air surrounding them are disrupting the potential for them to form ionic bonds. And so notice that the water here in this scenario, is what is doing the dissolving. And so the water is going to be found in larger amounts. It's what's doing the dissolving. And so the water is going to be the sol vent. And so notice up above the solvent is a substance that does the dissolving, usually found in larger amounts and usually going to be water when we're referring toa life. And so, of course, this means that the soul ute is going to be the sodium chloride. And so the sodium chloride is what is getting dissolved by the solvent. And so we can say here that the sodium chloride is going to be the Sol Ute. And so when we take the combination of all of the salutes and the sol vent, what we get is the solution. And so really, the solution is the combination of the salute and the solvent. And so if we take a look at our tax up above notice, we're defining the solution as the combination of the Sol Ute and the Sol Vet. Now, when we take a look at the solution that we have down below, over here on the right hand side, because water is acting as the solvent, we call this an aqueous solution. And so, in aqueous solution is just a solution in which water acts as the solvent, and so you can see acquis kind of sounds like aqua like Aquaman, for instance. And this is referring to water being the solvent in the solution, and so also noticed that the water molecules in the solution are going to form what's known as a hydration shell around the dissolved solute molecules. And so when we take a look at the dissolved solute molecules over here, the sodium and chloride notice that they're being surrounded by what's known as, ah, hydration shell, which is when water molecules surround the substance and interact with the substance to dissolve them. And so this year really concludes our introduction to the lesson on how water access the universal solvent and can dissolve so many different types of salutes and moving forward. In our course, we'll talk about how water can dissolve most of the biological solutions most of the biological molecules that will talk about moving forward, such as proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. And so this year concludes our lesson, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts in our next few videos. So I'll see you all there
A solution in which water is the solvent is called a(n) _______________ solution.
The substance in a mixture that is dissolved is called the:
d) Aqueous solution.
What is the charge of the solute molecule in the image below based on the polarity of water?
a) Positively charged.
b) Negatively charged.
d) Non-polar and hydrophobic.
Non-polar and hydrophobic.
Homogenous vs. Heterogenous Solutions
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in this video, we're going to distinguish between two different types of solutions homogeneous solutions versus heterogeneous solutions. Now, homogeneous solutions has this prefix homo in it, which we know means the same and so homogeneous solutions are going to be uniformly mixed solutions where all parts are the same or evenly distributed, and so heterogeneous solutions on the other hands has the prefix hetero, which means different and so heterogeneous solutions are going to be mixed solutions where parts are unequally distributed or unevenly distributed. And so when we take a look at our image down below, we can better distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions. So on the left hand side, over here, notice that we have two different salutes dissolved. In this beaker, we have the blue salutes and then we have the red salutes that we see throughout. And so notice that the blue and the red salutes are pretty evenly distributed throughout the beaker. And so this is therefore going to be referred to as ah, homogeneous solution, whereas over here on the right hand side, notice that we also have the same blue salutes and red salutes. However, notice that they are not equally distributed throughout the beaker. They are unequally distributed, noticed that the red ones are towards the top half of the beaker, whereas the blue ones are towards the bottom half of the beaker. So that is an unequal distribution throughout the beaker. And so this makes this, ah, heterogeneous solution once again hetero, meaning different and homo meaning the same. So evenly distributed versus hetero being different and being unevenly distributed. So, really, this year concludes our lesson on the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions, and we'll be able to get a bit of practice moving forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video.
The components of a heterogenous solution are ________________ distributed throughout.
Hydrophilic vs. Hydrophobic
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in this video, we're going to distinguish between hydro filic and hydrophobic substances. And so although water is known as the universal solvent because it can dissolve so many different substances, water cannot dissolve all substances. In fact, water can Onley dissolve substances that air hydro filic and so hydro filic is a word that describes substances that dissolve really, really easily in water due to having an affinity to water. And so hydro filic is really just saying water loving because the hydro prefix means water. And the Filic route here is Greek for loving and so substances that air hydro filic, our water loving meaning that they interact really, really nicely with the water and they dissolve well in the water. Now, substances that are polar and charged are substances that tend to be hydro filic, for example, salts and ions. Now, on the other hand, water will not dissolve substances that are hydro phobic. Now hydrophobic is a term that describes substances that do not dissolve in water, and so hydrophobic substances are water, fearing substances once again because the hydro prefix means water, and the phobic route here means fearing. So like people that have a phobia are people that have some kind of fear. And so it's really the non polar molecules that tend to be hydrophobic, for example, fats, oils and waxes, which will talk more about fats, oils and waxes later in our course, but down below. In our example, you can see that we're showing you the difference between hydrophobic and hydro filic substances. And so you can see we're looking at salt versus oil and water. So over here on the left hand side on blue, what we're showing you is salt being sprinkled into water. And the salt, we recall is sodium chloride. So you could see the sodium ion here, the chloride ion over here when we zoom in. And so the sodium and the chloride. They certainly have charges on them. So they are charged molecules. They are ions, and so they are hydro filic for that reason, water loving, and so they interact, and they mix really, really nicely with water. On the other hand, over here on the right hand side, we're showing you oil dissolved in water, and so if you go into your kitchen and take some vegetable oil and pour it into the water, which you'll notice is that the oil does not mix really nicely with water. No matter how much you stir the oil and water together, Eventually the oil is going to separate out from the water. And so the oil is hydrophobic. It does not dissolve well in water. It is water fearing. And so here we can say, Uh, the oil is hydro phobic. And so really, this year concludes our lesson on the difference between hydro Filic and hydrophobic substances. And we'll be able to get some practice as we move along in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video.