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Learn the toughest concepts covered in Microbiology with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors.

15. Central Dogma & Gene Regulation

Review of Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression


Review of Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression

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in this video, we're going to do a brief review of pro carry attic and eukaryotic gene expression by completing all of the interactive blanks that we have in the table down below. And so notice at this table is of pro carry attic and eukaryotic gene expression where on the left hand column what we have is the characteristic of gene expression. The middle column and blue represents the pro Kerasiotes and the far right column and green represents the eukaryotes. And so when it comes to the requirements for transcription initiation, recall that pro corrodes require what are called sigma factors. Whereas you corrodes, on the other hand, do not require sigma factors. Instead they require transcription factors. And so both of these are going to be required for transcription initiation to allow the RNA preliminaries to bind to the D. N. A. And initiate transcription. Now, next what we have here is the ribosomes size. And recall that pro carry arctic organisms use 70 S ribosomes and the 70 S ribosome consists of a smaller 30 S. Ribbon symbol sub unit and A larger 50 s ribosome subunit. Whereas the eukaryotic ribosomes size is going to be an 80 s larger ribosomes, so it's larger And it consists of a smaller 40 s rivals, almost sub unit and a larger 60 s rivals, almost sub unit. Now in terms of the location of transcription and translation, recall that pro carry arctic organisms do not have a membrane bound nucleus. Instead they have a nuclear OID. And so the nucleotide is the region that contains the DNA. Within pro curios. And so this is going to be really where transcription occurs in the new plea oid. Again, not to be confused with the nucleus. And we could also say here that transition transcription occurs in the cytoplasm. Okay. And so recall that with pro carioca transcription and translation occur in the same region and so forth translation. We could also say the nuclear oid or the cytoplasm now and you carry out this is going to be different because recall that eukaryotic organisms contain a membrane bound nucleus that stores the D. N. A. And so this is going to be the location of transcription for you. Karos is the nucleus. Again, not to be confused with the nuclear oid, the nucleus is a membrane bound organelles. Now, translation uh in eukaryotic organisms does not occur in the nucleus. Instead it's going to occur either in the cytoplasm or the rough end, a plasma critical um which I'm going to abbreviate as rough E. R. Or R E. R. Now in terms of having simultaneous transcription and translation, recall that pro curios do have simultaneous transcription and translation. So we can say yes to this question right here. Whereas for you carry outs this is not the case they do not have simultaneous transcription and translation because they occur in different locations. Now in terms of requiring M RNA processing, recall that pro carry arctic organisms, they do not process their messenger RNA. Whereas eukaryotic organisms, they do tend to process their Martinez. And this processing of the marianas includes adding A modified guanine cap to the five prime ed and a poly a tail to uh the three prime men. And then also it involves removing entrance and splicing together Exxon's. Uh And so in terms of entrance and Exxon's, what we can say is that for pro carry out this tends to not be the case since there is no um entrance uh and pro Kerasiotes. Whereas in eukaryotes uh we can say that this is the case that they tend to have both entrance and Exxon's. And then in terms of having either mono or polish histrionic Mrna uh recall that procuratorates have both. They can have either monos histrionic MRNA. Or they could have policies. Tronic MRNA and monos histrionic Mrna is only going to be containing one single gene whereas policy s tronic MRNA is contained two or more genes. And when it comes to eukaryotes um they tend to only have mono sis tronic M. R. N. S. That contain a single gene. And so this year concludes our review of pro carry attic and eukaryotic gene expression. And so I'll see you all in our next video

PRACTICE: Which of the following statements concerning transcription in bacteria is FALSE:


PRACTICE: All the following are involved in prokaryotic transcription but:


PRACTICE: Which of these answers are major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes in gene expression?


PRACTICE: Why can prokaryotes perform transcription and translation simultaneously while eukaryotes cannot?