15. Central Dogma & Gene Regulation
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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on central dogma. And so the central dogma of biology refers to the uni directional flow of biochemical information from DNA tau protein. And so by uni directional. What we mean is that it is a one directional flow, since the root puny means one and so information biochemical information will flow from DNA tau protein. But because it's a one directional flow, the biochemical information cannot flow backwards from protein to DNA. Now this uni directional flow of biochemical information from DNA to protein turns out it is a two step process that we have number down below number one and number two. And so the first step of the process is called transcription, which is the process that builds RNA by using DNA as the coating template. Now, as we move forward in our course, we're going to learn mawr about the process of transcription. However, the specific type of RNA that's going to be built in this case is going to be messenger RNA, which is also known as M Arna. And so we'll learn a lot about messenger RNA or mRNA as we move forward through our course. Now in the second step of this process is translation and translation is the process that builds protein by using the encoded messages of RNA, specifically M. Marna or messenger RNA, which again will learn more about moving forward in our course Now, sometimes the process of transcription and translation are collectively referred to as gene expression. And so a gene is a small unit of DNA recall from our previous lesson videos. And in order for a gene to be expressed, its final product needs to be created, which in many case in many cases the final product will be a protein. And so, if we take a look at our image down below, we could get a better understanding of this central dogma of molecular biology, which is again the uni directional flow of biochemical information from DNA all the way to protein. And so, of course, what you can see here is that the process that uses DNA to build Arna is going to be transcription. So this is labeling theme arrow that goes in this direction. And of course, the second step of the process is going to be translation, and translation is the process that uses the RNA to build a protein. And so, again, the specific type of Arna that's going to be used in translation is called M R N A or Messenger RNA, which we'll get to learn more about as we move forward in our course. Now it is important to note that DNA can be replicated as we talked about in our previous lesson videos. DNA replication, uh, is the process of using DNA as the template to build even mawr DNA. And so it's kind of like a cycle between DNA and so DNA replication here, which we can add. Replication, of course, is possible. Um, also, what is possible is a process that's referred to as reverse transcription, which is the process of using RNA, uh, and using the Arna to build DNA so Arna can be reverse transcribed into DNA. And so that is referring to this backwards arrow right here. The process of using the messenger RNA to build DNA is possible in some scenarios, and this is called reverse transcription. And so what you can see here is that DNA can be used to build RNA and RNA can be used to build DNA And of course, translation is the process that converts the, uh, messages of RNA into a protein. However, notice that this process here is uni directional. It goes in one direction on lee, and so, uh, the transfer of nucleic acid tau protein is irreversible. And so, of course, the nucleic acids include DNA and RNA. But once nucleic acid information has been converted to protein, this process here is irreversible, and information from protein is not used to build nuclear acids. And so that is partly what the central Dogma is referring to as well. And so this year concludes our brief introduction to the central dogma of biology and how it involves both transcription and translation. And as we move forward in our course, we're going to learn a lot, Maura, about each of these processes, transcription and translation. So I'll see you all in our next video
According to the central dogma, what is the intermediate molecule involved in the flow of information in a cell that should go in the blank? DNA → ________ → Proteins
The full process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotype is called: