Organic Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Organic Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors.

1. A Review of General Chemistry

Skeletal Structure

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Since we are going to be drawing A LOT of molecules over the next year, it makes sense to find an easier way to draw them. Hence, I now present to you 🥁 the skeletal structure!

*Also known as bondline structure or line-angle structure. 

Things You Don't Have to Draw

  • Carbons are implied:Every corner is assumed to represent a carbon.
  • Hydrogens are implied:Carbon is assumed to possess enough hydrogens to fill its octets.
  • Lone Pairs are implied:Heteroatoms are assumed to possess enough electrons to fill their octets.
  • Formal Charges are used to indicate when an atom does not satisfy its bonding preference.

Watch Out: ALL hydrogens on heteroatoms MUST be drawn explicitly. 

1

concept

How bondline is different from Lewis Structures.

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example

Conversion of ethanol from electron dot to bondline

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Content
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Problem

How many implied hydrogens does each labeled carbon have? 

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Problem

How many implied hydrogens does each labeled carbon have? 

5
Problem

Convert the structure into a line-angle structure. Be sure to assign ALL necessary formal and net charges.

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Problem

Convert the structure into a line-angle structure. Be sure to assign ALL necessary formal and net charges.

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Problem

Convert the structure into a line-angle structure. Be sure to assign ALL necessary formal and net charges.

 

Hint:Remember that you need to include formal charges if atoms are not at their bond preference. 

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Problem

Convert the structure into a line-angle structure. Be sure to assign ALL necessary formal and net charges.

We’ll be drawing these for the rest of the semester. Hope you liking them so far!